Red Flags Warning for providers about risks in applying psychophysiologically based interventions


  • Richard A. Sherman Saybrook University, California-United States
  • Cynthia R. Kerson Saybrook University, California-United States
  • Eric K. Willmarth Saybrook University, California-United States
  • Phoebe L. Manalang-Monnier Saybrook University, California-United States
  • Jerry R. DeVore Saybrook University, California-United States



Screening, Biofeedback, Neurofeedback, Psychophysiology, Hypnosis


Many behaviorally oriented practitioners applying psychophysiologically based interventions to symptoms such as headaches, early dementia, dysfunctional breathing, low back pain, anxiety, noncardiac chest pain, and irritable bowel syndromes may lack the training to recognize very serious underlying medical etiology, resulting in potentially life-threatening symptoms. Thus, some psychophysiologically based interventions should be deferred until an appropriately trained medical specialist clears clients. Practitioners may lack an appreciation of the limitations and challenges of certain psychophysiologically based interventions, such as hypnosis, neurofeedback, respiratory training, and biofeedback, for a variety of symptoms, including cluster headaches, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder, psychosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. This paper identifies red flag warnings associated with specific symptoms and the psychophysiologically oriented interventions employed to treat them.




How to Cite

Sherman, R. A., Kerson, C. R., Willmarth, E. K., Manalang-Monnier, P. L., & DeVore, J. R. (2023). Red Flags Warning for providers about risks in applying psychophysiologically based interventions. Annals of Psychophysiology, 10(2), 91–110.