Annals of Psychophysiology <p align="justify"><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology (APP)</strong>&nbsp;is the semi-annual journal of the Advanced Educational Institute &amp; Research Centre’s psychophysiology program. It provides a platform for scientific contributions on all aspects of psychophysiology with emphasis on the psychophysiology of health and disease with sub-themes covering environmental and sports psychophysiology.&nbsp;&nbsp;APP is an open-access journal committed to maintaining high standards through rigorous peer-review. The journal has three sections: A review of the year’s advances in some aspect of psychophysiology, a theme section containing invited articles concentrating on an emerging area of psychophysiology, and a section on original contributions to the field.</p> en-US (APP) (Editorial Office) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Don't assume that your equipment is doing what you think it is <p>A perennial problem encountered by both novices and experienced people using psychophysiological recording equipment and then using the displays as the basis for biofeedback and neurofeedback is that the equipment is frequently not doing what the users think it is. Hardware and software are frequently glitchy and setting the devices incorrectly makes matters worse. The key question to answer is whether the device reliably produces a display clearly related to the physiological signal produced by the person being recorded. The editorial emphasizes the need to view a raw signal so relationships between the physiology being recorded and the display can be accurately assessed. Seven key questions users of psychophysiological recording and biofeedback/neurofeedback equipment need to answer are delineated. They include: (1) Are the sensors mounted optimally for location and orientation, (2) Are the sensors mounted well enough to pick up a good signal, (3) Is the device’s bandwidth set appropriately, (4) Is there noise in the signal, (5) Does the display accurately reflect changes in the signal, (6) Does the display change when the physiological signal does, and (7) Is the display set so users can accurately assess the signal? Users are encouraged to get the training they need to do a great job when performing recordings.</p> Richard A. Sherman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sleep disturbances and lack of exercise: accumulating factors for altered BMI in medical students of public sector universities <p><strong>Background:</strong> Changes in lifestyles such as lack of exercises and sleep can have negative effects on the body weight. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the association of the pattern of sleep, exercise, and diets with the body mass index (BMI) of medical students.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This is a cross-sectional study that incorporates self-developed questionnaires. Participants are medical university students (250) living in Karachi, Pakistan. Correlation and Pearson’s chi-square test for independence was applied to observe the association between BMI, sleep patterns, exercise and eating habits.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The age of the students were between 19-25 years.&nbsp; The data show a significantly higher number of students (70.6%) with low BMI. Significantly high numbers of students have disturbed sleep (47.4%) during the nights and an increased number of students feel irritated (78.7%) about their sleeping pattern. Because of this, students (61.1%) experienced difficulties at work. Moreover, it was found that only 67 students are doing exercise while 154 students are not doing any exercises. However, they are taking enough 5-6 (47.1%) or 6-8 hours (29.9%) sleep.&nbsp; The majority of the students do not smoke (96.8%), or eat big meals before bed (62%) or consume junk foods (68.8%) on a daily basis. Nevertheless, most of them felt tired (61.1%) but not sleepy (57%) before going to bed. The majority of the students (81.4%) have problems waking up in the morning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A Significant correlation was found between BMI and sleep duration. Irregular sleeping pattern and lack of physical activities are accumulating factors for students to be underweight. Sleep disturbances affected their focus on the academic studies. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for students to participate in physical activities.</p> Tehlil Rizwan, Rabbiya Khan, Fauzia Imtiaz, Sonia Siddiqui, Muhammad Ashraf Hussain, Farhia Khalid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Burnout Syndrome and Physical Activity of the University Teachers – A cross-sectional Observational Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Burnout and physical activity (PA) are two critical determinants of health. The burnout and PA of the university teachers in Pakistan are not well, established. The main objective of the present study is to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome and the level of physical activity in university teachers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The sample of university teachers (n=505) was drawn from 14 public/private universities in Peshawar using a partly convenient, non-probabilistic method based on an exhaustive and up-to-date database of all universities in Peshawar. Data were collected on these parameters: socio-demographics, anthropometrics (body weight, height, and body mass index: BMI), Burnout using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-ES), and PA level. The global Physical Activity Questionnaire developed by WHO (GPAQ-WHO) was used. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The sample consisted predominantly of males (78%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.5 ± 7.9 (Range: 28 – 60). The results demonstrated that 19% of university teachers suffered from burnout syndrome, with most of those with job experience &lt;10 years. The mean PA for all the respondents was 955.1 MET minutes/week, with significant differences in PA levels of male and female teachers from public vs. private universities (p, for all trends &lt; 0.05). The proportion of physically active university teachers was 63.6% (95%CI 56.6 to 68.2), with a higher proportion of university teachers without Burnout Syndrome being physically active than those with Burnout Syndrome (73.5% (95%CI 68.1 to 79.3) vs. 21.6% (95%CI 16.5 to 24.6). Only a small number of university teachers could achieve the recommended levels of PA with differences between genders and university types.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Work-related burnout is seen in teachers with poor physical activity, and females are mostly affected. Public sector universities showed a greater burnout rate. The public sector needs to revitalize the staff and train them to manage their workload efficiently.</p> Qazi Noor Ul Wahab, Zia Ud Din, Muhammad Jahanzeb, Saleem Ullah, Muhammad Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, and job dissatisfaction in health care professional dealing with covid-19 patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> In Pakistan, Health care professionals already suffer a lot mentally due to work burden and health risks, COVID-19 added more stress to the situation. This study aims to evaluate stress, anxiety, and depression with job satisfaction in health care professionals treating COVID-19 Patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among health care professionals, working at COVID-19 hospitals (private and public sector hospitals both). Data was collected from special units like isolation wards, and intensive care units. The study questionnaire consists of a socio-demographic section followed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for measuring stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD). Moreover, War Cook Wall (1979) job satisfaction questionnaire was also used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Study data reveals moderate to severe levels of anxiety (21.7% to 22.5%) and depression (22.5%, 13.3%) among healthcare providers. An association between age, marital status, organization, and occupation with depression at a p-value &lt; 0.05 was noticed. A moderate degree of job satisfaction is found in overall job satisfaction. The majority of participants showed dissatisfaction in terms of income. Overall average level of satisfaction was found in rest of the items of WCW questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study disclosed that the majority of healthcare professionals were found to have stress, anxiety, and depression.</p> Afshan Arzoo, Saima Masoom Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Intervention to relieve Stress. <p>Depression is prevailing and captivating millions of individuals across the globe. There are numerous stressors and triggers that can induce depressive symptoms or anxiety in individuals of all ages. This exponential growth in depressed and distressed members of society may lead to a massive loss of productive individuals. It is a general practice to prescribe drugs to treat such psychological concerns, but acquiring these medications frequently may affect the body's metabolism. Alternative interventions that can replace or minimize the use of drugs are needed. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) is a practical approach to treating stress and depression. This article intends to represent an overview of HRVB, its effectiveness, and its side effects so that it can be compared to the medications prescribed.</p> S. Farah Batool, Basit Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Approaches used for the Quantification of Pain in Physical Therapy Practices-A Systematic Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to determine the most common pain intensity assessment tool that has been used in different physical therapy management-based studies as a primary outcome measure for the quantification of pain.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, PEDro, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies from January 2015 to September 2021 by using keywords like 'pain,' 'pain intensity,' 'Visual Analogue Scale,' and 'Numeric Pain Rating Scale.' Randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies in which pain management is considered an outcome measure published in the English language were included. In contrast, Non-RCTs were excluded that were based on pain management strategies other than physical therapy or conducted in inpatient department or based on approaches of telerehab.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings revealed that n=1,292 participants were given different physical therapy interventions in which n=792 (61.3%) were evaluated for their pain on VAS, followed by n=453 (35%) on NPRS and n=169 (13%) on PPT of the total population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> VAS was the most frequently used tool to determine the patient's perception of pain, followed by NPRS and McGill Pain Questionnaire.</p> Shahrukh Abbasi, Shahzaib Naseer, Sumaira Imran Farooqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of EMG, RESP, and TEMP Biofeedback Training to reduce Anxiety among Undergraduate Students <p><strong>Background:</strong> It is evident that anxiety and stress are two of the main predominant issues that cause several mental health problems and disorders in university students, causing a negative impact on this population. Higher educational institutes in Pakistan have limited access and resources to face these issues. It is suggested that biofeedback-aided relaxation training has been effective in alleviating anxiety and stress symptoms among undergraduate students, especially during their examination season. Recent research has proven biofeedback to be effective training for anxious students. The current randomized control trial is planned to investigate the effectiveness of Electromyography-EMG, Respiration Rate-RESP, and Skin Temperature-TEMP biofeedback training for reducing anxiety symptoms among nursing students be receiving 8 sessions for 4 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study is planned to investigate the effectiveness of EMG, RESP, and TEMP Biofeedback Training in reducing symptoms of anxiety among the nursing students from one school, and to determine whether biofeedback training is associated with relaxing the minds and bodies of the anxious nursing students to cope with the distressing situation. Study subjects meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomized into two groups using randomly generated numbers: the Biofeedback training group and the Control group. Biofeedback training will be used as an intervention vs. the control. All the study subjects who give consent to participate will be made to complete the study questionnaires (Demographic, Screening for Anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory –STAI) at baseline and post-intervention (after 4 weeks).</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> This study might help us determine biofeedback as a possible effective and useful technique in helping nursing students manage their anxiety. Moreover, it is suggested that Individuals receiving biofeedback training tend to show significant changes for the three psychophysiological modalities, i.e., EMG, RESP, and TEMP. This study might also give us insight into the efficacy of biofeedback in the Pakistani population seeking help for stress and anxiety.</p> Ujala Sajid, Shamoon Noushad, Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000