Annals of Psychophysiology <p align="justify"><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology (APP)</strong>&nbsp;is the semi-annual journal of the Advanced Educational Institute &amp; Research Centre’s psychophysiology program. It provides a platform for scientific contributions on all aspects of psychophysiology with emphasis on the psychophysiology of health and disease with sub-themes covering environmental and sports psychophysiology.&nbsp;&nbsp;APP is an open-access journal committed to maintaining high standards through rigorous peer-review. The journal has three sections: A review of the year’s advances in some aspect of psychophysiology, a theme section containing invited articles concentrating on an emerging area of psychophysiology, and a section on original contributions to the field.</p> en-US (APP) (Editorial Office) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Comparison of psychological well-being and life satisfaction between extended and nuclear family systems among students <p><strong>Background:</strong> The family system affects the mental health and well-being of an individual and significantly alters the satisfaction level. The current study intended to explore the differences in psychological well-being and life satisfaction between the students belong to extended and nuclear family systems.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>For this comparative study, a sample size of 467 participants (204 male &amp; 263 female) was selected, including 314 participants from the nuclear family system and 153 from the extended family system. The Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale (PWB) and the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were used as outcome measuring tools.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean PWB scores were 343.45 ± 2.745 for the extended family system and 339.67 ± 1.90 for the nuclear family system. The mean score of satisfaction with life was 1.05 ± 5.64 for the extended family system, and the mean score for the nuclear family system was 1.05 ± 5.60 while (t=1.907). Moreover, women's PWB means the score was 343.71 ± 29.57, and men's PWB mean score was 333.80 ± 37.35. While the score of satisfaction with women's life was 22 ± 5.75, and the men's score was 22.58 ± 5.46.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results show no significant mean difference in the psychological well-being of participants of nuclear and extended family systems. Similarly, no significant difference was found in satisfaction with life between both family systems. Gender difference in PWB was found as women scored higher than men, while there was no gender difference among students in satisfaction with life.</p> Kanwal Jahan, Saima Masoom Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Mothers Resilience in the Development of Resilience and Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Daughters <p><strong>Background:</strong> Resilience has proven to be a protective factor against adverse conditions. However, mental health professionals have started studying resilience in terms of reducing depression and anxiety. In Pakistan especially, this area needs to be explored to develop interventions to make people resilient. This study aimed to investigate and understand the role of mothers' resilience in developing resilience and prevention of depression and anxiety in daughters.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study, and data were collected from 88 participants hailing from different areas of Karachi, Pakistan, and among them, 44 were girls, and 44 were their biological mothers. The variables were assessed using the resilience and depression anxiety scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study results reveal that when mothers are resilient, it helps develop resilience in daughters. Since there was no significant difference between mothers' and daughters' resilience, all the mothers were resilient, and their daughters were resilient. Further, this study also showed that resilience is negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between mothers' resilience and daughters' depression and anxiety scores. Besides this, a significant positive relationship has also been found between daughters' resilience and mothers' depression anxiety scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings, it is suggested that for the development of a healthy society, intervention programs that promote resilience must be adapted for children as well as adults so that they can overcome the challenges of daily life.</p> Zara Nisar Damani, Sana Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Can attachment styles predict psychological and emotional well-being? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Attachment is an intangible form of sharing love, concerns, and emotion between two individuals or sometimes in terms of society. Attachment styles with an individual's parents, peers, or loved ones greatly affect an individual's different domains of life. Many studies have been conducted to identify the relationship of attachment styles and personality traits, physical and mental health. However, a few kinds of research have focused on the relationship of attachment styles with well-being. Therefore, the main objective of the research was to assess whether attachment style can predict psychological and emotional well-being.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study required a sample of 300 students from different public and private universities in Karachi. Measures used in the study are The Relationships Questionnaire (RQ) and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). The Relationships Questionnaire (RQ) was used to assess the attachment style, and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was used in the study to assess psychological and emotional wellbeing, items related to a specific variable used in the study were included in the assessment. Data were analyzed through regression analysis which is an inferential statistical test using SPSS version 24.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results were not as per the assumption of the study hypotheses; there was no significant effect of attachment styles on psychological and emotional wellbeing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence, results indicated that attachment style alone could not be considered a good predictor of psychological and emotional well-being. It only has a minor effect, but for the prediction of psychological and emotional wellbeing, other mediating variables and personality factors should also be assessed or considered.&nbsp;</p> Shahana Masood, Saima Masoom Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Identification of Sialuria with Different Degrees of Intellectual Disabilities in Children and Adolescents <p><strong>Background:</strong> Single nucleotide polymorphism/mutation in the R263L region of the allosteric site of the GNE gene produces a phenotype with an overproduction of intracellular levels of sialic acid and causes sialuria. In sialuria, a defective GNE gene, synthesized with lost feedback inhibition mechanism, produces many developmental delays and varying degrees of intellectual disabilities in children and adolescents. Several mutations in the epimerase and kinase domains exist that cause difficulty in getting a precise and exact effect of the GNE gene on the disease severity and sialic acid levels. This is the first study investigating the molecular basis of neuronal disorders exhibiting sialuria in Pakistani children/ adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The current study quantified the mRNA expression of the GNE gene and urinary sialic acid concentration by Realtime-qRT-PCR and Fluorimetric assays, respectively. The correlation between relative mRNA and urinary sialic acid levels was evaluated by using Pearson Bivariate correlations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The data show that severely intellectually disabled (I.D.) patients showed significantly reduced mRNA expression levels of the GNE gene compared to controls. The concentrations of free sialic acid in urine were significantly reduced in severe I.D. patients compared to controls. Whereas patients with mild I.D. showed a two-fold increase in sialic acid levels when compared to controls. A significant correlation was found between an increased GNE mRNA and low urinary sialic acid levels from severe I.D. patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The effect of the GNE gene is beyond hyposialylation that could hinder N-glycan structure and sialic acid biosynthesis. The study highlighted the possible involvement of sialic acid levels with different degrees of intellectual disabilities in Pakistani children and adolescents.</p> Hina Ishtiaq, Sonia Siddiqui, Rukhsana Nawaz, Muhammad Ashraf Hussain, Fauzia Imtiaz, Zeba Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cultivate an attitude of gratitude among college students: <p><strong>Background:</strong> Positive psychological interventions (PPIs) is the premise that focuses on how people can learn contentment and move toward Subjective well-being (SWB). One of the well-known Positive psychological intervention strategies is the gratitude intervention that challenges to evoke gratitude and helps produce positive feelings. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of 3 weeks gratitude meditation program and determine its effects on SWB (spell out) measures. Also, it was observed whether or not the Gratitude practice can improve the tendency to respond with a sense of gratitude itself.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This Quasi-Experimental study included 160 students from 2 colleges in Karachi who were participating voluntarily in the gratitude meditation program, conducted by investigators. All study subjects gave written informed consent before proceeding further. The mean age of the study subjects was 15 to 20 years. A total of 80 male and 80 female students participate in this study. The purposive non-probability sampling technique was used for recruiting the study sample. Data were obtained using a brief demographic sheet, followed by pre-and post-intervention measures, using the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Statistical analysis was conducted on SPSS version 22.0. Descriptive analysis technique and paired-sample t-test applied for within-group comparison.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings were highly significant with p&lt; .001. The results showed a significant difference between the mean scores of pre-and Post-intervention conditions of SWB. Moreover, the participant's level of gratitude was increased by experimental manipulation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cultivating gratitude significantly contributes to satisfaction and positive outcomes in life, suggesting that gratitude training could be proposed as a beneficial practice for increasing SWB.</p> Aisha Rais Ahmed, Saima Masoom ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Treatment of severe anxiety and social phobia by hypnosis and neurolinguistic programming- A Case Report <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypnosis is being used in combination with different forms of psychotherapy nowadays, such as neuro-linguistic programming, to work as a complementary treatment. This pairing allows for more targeted and patient-specific approaches to treat psychological disorders, phobias, and pain. An example is our previous study, in which hypnosis was used to treat tobacco-pan addiction. Following a similar model in this case study, we investigate the effectiveness of hypnosis and neuro-linguistic programming as treatments for anxiety and phobias.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> We discuss a case of a 20-year-old boy with severe anxiety and social phobia who was already taking antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants, but they did not aid in treating his condition. He was then treated with hypnotherapy and neuro-linguistic programming to address the rooted triggers for his phobia. A thorough three-hour session revealed the details of each traumatic event. Each incident was isolated and changed in the patient's subconscious mind while he was hypnotized to remove that incident's role as a trigger.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results:</strong> The patient reported approximately seventy percent recovery immediately after the first session in terms of rebuilding his confidence. The recovery was measured on DASS-21 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The severity of his phobia was significantly controlled in a short-span of time, with almost no episode after the first hypnosis and NLP session.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hypnotherapy and neurolinguistic programming is an effective treatment for anxiety disorder and social phobia. It is also time-efficient and produces better results than other forms of treatment without accompanying side effects.</p> Samina Malik, Maheen Mirza, Fayyaz Ahmad, Arif Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Proposed Study Using Psychophysiological Biomarkers to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Cat-Cow Yoga Exercise to Reduce Chronic Musculoskeletal Low Back Pain <p><strong>Background:</strong> Low Back Pain (LBP) is a painful condition of the musculoskeletal system that affects the quality of life and causes disabilities that can cease or limit daily life activities. Around 85% of the population has encountered LBP at least once in their lives. Due to sustained or improper postures, the incidence rate of LBP is reportedly high amongst healthcare providers worldwide. The treatments to manage LBP are generally some Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which only give short-term relief and are seemingly ineffective after a particular time, so higher doses are needed. This study aims to test the Cat-Cow yoga posture to manage LBP in longer terms.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> It will be a uni-center randomized control trial, and the participants with musculoskeletal low back pain will be randomly allocated into two groups. Group 1 will receive the intervention, cat-cow yoga sessions, and Group 2 will get the general care guide. Altered levels of cortisol, substance P and beta-endorphins will be measured and compared at baseline and after completion of 12 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> A practical and cost-friendly intervention that can help Back pain sufferers to reduce their pain. This study will determine the efficacy of a useful and cost-effective yoga technique to overcome the psychophysiological manifestations of musculoskeletal CLBP.&nbsp;</p> Syeda Farah Batool, Shamoon Noshad, Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000