Scientific misconduct, Expression of Concern & Retraction
It includes data fabrication; data falsification, including deceptive manipulation of images; and plagiarism. When scientific misconduct is suspected, or concerns are raised about the integrity of work described in submitted or published papers, the editor initiates appropriate procedures according to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines. The procedure involves investigation at the authors. If then scientific misconduct is proved through the investigation, the retraction process is followed. Expressions of concern and retracted article would prominently be labeled in all its forms (abstract, full text, PDF). Retracted articles would remain in the public domain. The validity of previous work by the author of a fraudulent paper cannot be assumed.