Psychological Response & Perceived Risk Associated with Coronavirus Disease

  • Saima Khan Laboratory of Skeletal Development and Regeneration, The Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing-China
  • Yusra Saleem Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre (AEIRC), Karachi-Pakistan
  • Syed A. Aziz 2. Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre (AEIRC), Karachi-Pakistan 3. University of Ottawa & Health Canada, Canada
Keywords: COVID-19, Perceived Vulnerability, Psychological Impacts, Perceived Stress, Disease Susceptibility.


Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by WHO as it is found to be excessively transmissible & to spread throughout the world. The disease has caused a worldwide impact because of the need to establish worldwide activity by extensive social distancing and quarantine due to the daily rising death toll. Through this study, we examined intend to examine the psychological effects, perceptual vulnerability, and perceived stress developed among the general population.

Methodology: The study was conducted from 2nd March to 26th May 2020. A total of 2188 of subjects replied to our informal online survey internationally. The respondent's demographic details and data regarding precautionary measures, perceptual vulnerability, perceived stress, and level of susceptibility of COVID-19 was collected. The perceived stress scale (PSS-10) was used for assessment of perceived anxiety, stigmatization, and fear of developing COVID-19.

Results: As per the study findings, moderate perceived stress was observed among 66.6% of the respondents. Among the protective measures, washing hands was most frequent 56.2%, but the use of face mask wasn't widespread, i.e. 48.9% rarely or never used face masks. 37.1% felt anxious around sick people, 58.5% were usually bothered by the people sneezing without covering their mouths. 32.3% occasionally felt agitated because of no control over the current situation & 18.6% frequently felt stressed and/or nervous. The contact history revealed that 11.2% had close contact, 20.9% had a non-close contact, and 12.9% were those who had suspected connection with a confirmed case.

Conclusion: Evidently, COVID-19 has numerous psychological impacts, and the responses vary due to perceived vulnerability & stress. The social distancing, disease fear, and quarantine may have some negative effects which may have some lasting consequences on general population.


Download data is not yet available.


Government of Pakistan, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation and coordination. National Action Plan for
APP| Published By AEIRC| Volume 7 Issue 1
ISSN 2412-3188 (Online) | 2410-1354 (Print)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pakistan. 2020 [Cited March 4, 2020]. Available at:
2. Frontiers Research Topics. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Psychological, Behavioral, Interpersonal Effects, and Clinical Implications for Health Systems. 2020. [Cited March 4, 2020]. Available at:
3. World Health Organization (WHO). Infection prevention and control during health care for probable or confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: Interim guidance. 2019. [Updated October, 2019] [Cited March 5, 2020]. Available at:
4. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. 2020. [Updated: April 5th 2020]. Available at:
5. World Health Organization. Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak. 2020 [Updated March 18, 2020] [Cited March 5, 2020]. Available at:
How to Cite
Khan, S., Saleem, Y., & Aziz, S. (2020). Psychological Response & Perceived Risk Associated with Coronavirus Disease. Annals of Psychophysiology, 7, 9-18.
Original Article