International Journal on Women Empowerment https://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJWE <p>The&nbsp;<strong>International Journal on Women Empowerment </strong>(published from Pakistan)&nbsp;is an annual, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal. This multidisciplinary journal publishes research and scholarly ideas about Women's health and social issues, with the objective to endorse Women's Empowerment.&nbsp;<strong>IJWE</strong>&nbsp;is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.&nbsp;</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal on Women Empowerment 2413-4252 Maternal and Fetal Attachment before Birth: Trends in Pregnant Women of Urban Karachi https://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJWE/article/view/872 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Maternal-fetal attachment is a multidimensional phenomenon and product of diverse physiological, psychological, and socio-emotional factors. Prenatal period plays a crucial role in forming this bond and further predicts post-natal attachment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The present research was conducted using cross-sectional survey design. 66 participants filled the survey regarding practices, perceptions and attitudes of maternal-fetal attachment, after attending an online session on “Talking to the Baby in the Womb”.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Analysis revealed that participants eat healthy during prenatal period and talk to their baby in tummy. Wondering when the baby starts thinking, feeling and hearing within also aids in forming maternal-fetal relationship. Statistically significant difference (p=0.013) was found between HCP and PW in terms of attitude towards feeding the baby and perception of mother giving up for the baby (p=0.04).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Following research allows us to study the differences in the practices between healthcare providers and pregnant women so that interventions can be designed accordingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shelina Bhamani Anita Attaullah Hajra Malik Faiqa Binte Aamir Areeba Syed Amir Raza Lumaan Sheikh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-19 2022-10-19 Women Empowerment through Waste Recycling in Africa. Case of Douala, Cameroon. https://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJWE/article/view/823 <p><strong>Background:</strong> In the city of Douala, Cameroon, the activities like collecting, sorting, trading, and sometimes even processing waste materials, provide an income opportunity for large numbers of poor people, where women represent a great number. However, the informal sector is usually characterized by poor working and living conditions, uncertain incomes, low social status, and little or no support from local governments. Thus, it remains doubtful if they will achieve more power and freedom as well as economic empowerment through participation in the informal waste recycling sector. This study aims to analyze the relationship between women's roles, participation in the informal sector of recycling, positive and negative outcomes, and empowerment in the city of Douala.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study exploits both qualitative and quantitative methods using the survey as the data collection technique. The sampling was carried out by random sampling technique, and the criteria for sampling were women waste pickers in the Bonamousadi, Ndokoti, and Bonanjo dumpsites.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of this study indicates that female waste pickers, apart from being housewives, are active in collecting, upgrading, and selling valuable waste materials. They work as individual waste pickers and are exposed to many risks at the dumpsite as they work with no protective equipment and no legal protection. They face unstable incomes and social stigma, and most cannot make decisions in the household. Though their living conditions have improved and they have gained greater independence in purchasing, they have not achieved more power nor gained any empowerment as many indicated that they perceive themselves in the lowest rung of the ladder of power and freedom where there is almost no freedom to make decisions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Empowering women waste pickers through creating waste organizations or groups and integration with the formal sector might have a significant correlation with achieving more power and freedom and changing the perception of the public on waste pickers. This is the basis for achieving more sustainable waste management and a better environment.&nbsp;</p> Sophie Ebot Agborabang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 Globalization-Female Labour Participation Nexus in Pakistan: A Dynamic Analysis. https://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJWE/article/view/780 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The process of globalization is defined as a process of integration with the globe through trade, foreign investment, and the transfer of technology and migration from one region to another. There is a need to investigate whether increasing dependency and interconnectedness among various regions can bring any advantage for female labor while opening a new venue or creating hurdles. The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of globalization on female labor participation using time series data. This study also considers the impact of the economic situation, education, and health on the female labour supply in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Female labour force participation rate is a dependent variable, whereas; Globalization Index, Economic Misery Index, school enrolment ratio, fertility rate, and GDP growth are independent variables. The ARDL bound testing approach has been used for data analysis to estimate the model. The time series data was collected from secondary data from 1973 to 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study's finding proves globalization's negative and significant impact on female labour participation in Pakistan. The increasing trend of globalization is not supporting domestic employment opportunities for females. Rather, it pushed females back from the labor market due to the demand for more skilled labor and the replacing human labor with technology. Moreover, the lack of education and health facilities and the worse economic situation have overturned globalization's positive effects on females.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the study's findings, it is suggested to improve female skills through investment in different education, training, and skills development programs to cope with the imminent challenges of globalization on females in Pakistan. Even though researchers have highlighted the impact of globalization on female labour, however; it has not been investigated comprehensively in the context of Pakistan. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the impact of globalization on females, considering the Economic Misery Index, school enrolment ratio, fertility rate, and GDP growth.</p> Azeema Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-12 2022-12-12