International Journal on Women Empowerment <p>The&nbsp;<strong>International Journal on Women Empowerment </strong>(published from Pakistan)&nbsp;is an annual, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal. This multidisciplinary journal publishes research and scholarly ideas about Women's health and social issues, with the objective to endorse Women's Empowerment.&nbsp;<strong>IJWE</strong>&nbsp;is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.&nbsp;</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal on Women Empowerment 2413-4252 Correcting iron deficiency anemia among women with hypothyroidism; a quality-of-life perspective <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypothyroidism is a disease characterized by the thyroid gland's compromised ability to produce the thyroid hormone. The condition is often accompanied by Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Together the two have a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL). To gauge the effect of correcting iron deficiency anemia among women with clinical hypothyroidism, improving the quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 140 women pre-diagnosed with hypothyroidism and IDA were included in this experimental study and were presented to the medical outpatient department at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad. All-female participants were recruited via non-probability – consecutive sampling and were included after taking written informed consent and administered corrective treatment (Iron salts). Data was recorded onto a pre-structured questionnaire containing inquiries about basic biodata, sociodemographic details, disease history, present clinical condition, laboratory findings and QoL using Thyroid-Dependent Quality of Life Questionnaire (ThyDQoL), and was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of participants included in the study was 29 ± 03 years (range 21 to 43). The mean serum ferritin level was 33 ± 03 ng/mL, while the total mean Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) was 514 mcg/dL. In 92.1% of the patients, the normalized post-4-week treatment of the Underactive ThyDQoL score suggests improvement from a negative 7 to a negative 3 (cumulative mean value) of the sample.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study results concluded that correcting anemia helps improve the QoL among patients with hypothyroidism. Since the remedy to anemia is achieved earlier than hypothyroidism management in most cases, it is recommended that the efforts are directed to screen and correct anemia (iron deficiency) among such patients.</p> Sadia Akbar Safian Ahmed Masood Ahmed Memon Khalida Avesi Muhammad Muneeb Khalil Ahmed Kazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-16 2021-03-16 7 1 5 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.1-5 Does Gender Inequality Affect Economic Growth? Empirics from Asian Countries. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gender inequality is present in our society in different areas of life. Moreover, world organizations acknowledge the importance of gender inequality control and list it as one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Though the standing of gender inequality cannot be denied as a social issue, it is vital to analyze its impact on other areas as well. This study specifically analyzes the impact of gender inequality in education on economic growth and how gender inequality can affect economies' short-run and long-run potential.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study examines the extent and dimensions to which gender inequality affects the economic growth of Asian countries. The study employs an annual dataset from 2003-2018 comprised of 48 Asian countries. World Bank data set is used. Panel data analysis is the basis of the study. The empirical analysis begins with a fixed / random effect. Moreover, sensitivity analysis was also used to check the robustness of initial results.<br><strong>Results:</strong> This study shows that gender inequality at the tertiary level of education affects the economic growth in the selected Asian countries. Since gender inequality at the tertiary level of education is directly associated with the quality of gender mix in the labour market, its impact is reflected in this empirical work. However, gender parity in education at the primary level was found not to be significant in its contribution to GDP growth. Though the impact of gender inequality at the primary level is not found to be statistically significant, reasonably, this inequality will result in a lower potential in the long run. In all the models having population growth, the impact of gender parity was found to be positive.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that reducing gender inequality on the tertiary level of education positively affects economic growth. Moreover, the study emphasizes that there is a necessity to increase women's education and lowering gender inequality at different levels of educational attainment to boost long-run and short-run economic potential.</p> Farah Atiq Faisal Sultan Qadri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 11 20 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.11-20 Post-operative outcome & disease-free survival among patients of breast cancer with raised C - reactive protein <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer and inflammation have a bidirectional association; chronic inflammation is considered a major contributor to carcinogenesis. C - reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory protein produced by the liver, has been identified as an important prognostic marker among breast cancer patients. This study aimed to elucidate the role of C-reactive protein as an inflammatory prognostic predictor in breast cancer patients and its impact on disease-free survival (DFS).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This prospective cohort study included 80 locally advanced breast cancer (stage II and III) patients presenting at the Department of General Surgery (Unit II), Liaquat University Hospital - Jamshoro/Hyderabad. Patient data, including demographics, stage and hormone status of breast cancer, metastatic workup, pre-operative CRP,&nbsp; post-operative complications and DFS on follow-ups including recurrence, metastasis and post-surgery skin manifestation, were recorded using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was conducted on SPSS version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Pre-operatively, a mildly raised serum CRP level was observed in 71.25% of patients and highly raised in 28.5%.&nbsp; The post-operative complications were observed in 12 participants with wound infection in 8, wound dehiscence in 3 and sepsis in only 1 participant. The DFS, including recurrence-free and metastatic-free survival, were observed in 69 participants</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> After thorough observation, it can be concluded that the raised CRP level is a significant predictor for post-operative complications (wound infection, dehiscence, and sepsis) and disease-free survival among patients with locally advanced breast cancer.</p> Amir Iqbal Memon Aisha Masroor Bhatti Ramsha Khan Maira Sangrasi Sheraz Malik Hira Mughal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 7 21 25 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.21-25 Maternal and perinatal outcome in adolescent and adult primigravida <p><strong>Background:</strong> Improving maternal and child health is prioritized globally; however, adolescent pregnancies remain the prime one among the many obstacles. The study aimed to determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent and adult primigravida.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was carried out between 1<sup>st</sup> December 2018 to 30<sup>th</sup> November 2019, over a sample of 487 pregnant women (primigravida), presenting at the Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, for childbirth/delivery. The patients were categorized as adolescents (aged ≤19 years) and labelled as group A and adults (aged 20-34 years) labelled as group B, comprising 83 and 404 patients. Data were recorded using a structured questionnaire containing details pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, labour, delivery and immediate postpartum period complications of pregnancy. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 1738 deliveries were completed in the study duration at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi. The mean age of the women was 18.35 ± 0.06 years, and the modal age was 27 years. The mean gestational age of the women was 36.86 ± 2.15 weeks among teens and 38.55 ± 0.55 weeks among adults. The incidence of adverse outcomes was higher among maternal [anemia; 46.9% (p-value 0.05)] and perinatal [preterm delivery (20%), low birth weight (22%), stillbirth (11.5%) and perinatal mortality (10%); p&lt;0.05] was higher among teens.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that teenage pregnancies are comparatively riskier than adult pregnancies for the child and the mother, as is apparent from the significant</p> Shazia Aftab Huma Baloch Komal . Saira Ghafoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 26 31 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.26-31 Determining the perinatal outcome among women with high risk pregnancies <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pregnancy is a physiological process and should ideally yield no morbidity and mortality; however, in some instances, pregnancy becomes a high-risk. A high-risk pregnancy carries significant danger to the fetus and mother before, during and after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the perinatal outcome among women with high-risk pregnancies.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December 2015, including 287 women with high-risk pregnancies scheduled to undergo delivery at Liaquat University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Data pertaining to sociodemographic details, gestational, obstetric history, Apgar score and the perinatal outcome was recorded using a pre-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0..</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the enrolled participants was 29.12 ± 5.46 years. The perinatal outcomes included stillbirths (8%), early neonatal deaths (4.2%), low birth weight (22.6%) and poor Apgar score i.e., &lt; 7 at 1 minute (10.5%) and 5 minutes (3.8%). Stratification revealed a significant risk of poor perinatal outcome (low birth weight) among women aged above 30 years (p-value = 0.002).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded from the study results that high-risk pregnancies yield poor perinatal outcomes, including stillbirths, low birth weight, early neonatal death and poor Apgar scores.</p> Khalida Avesi Huma Baloach Kouser Fatima Anila Mujadid Qureshi Shahneela Moosa Shabhat e Maryam Syed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 7 32 36 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.32-36 Unmet need for family planning in Pakistan: prevalence and factors influencing unmet need among women of reproductive age. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Despite government efforts, the contraceptive prevalence rate is low in Pakistan. UMNFP still exists in Pakistan like other low-middle income countries. Our study aims to determine the prevalence and factors affecting the unmet need for family planning in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The analysis was performed using PDHS 2017-18 data set. In our study, 11847 women of reproductive age were included out of 14498.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>In binary logistic regression, age, wealth index, and the number of living children found statistically significant. UMNFP was lower in women of older age (45-49) in contrast to younger women of age between 15-19 years. Regarding the women's socioeconomic status, those who belong to the middle socioeconomic class had a lower UNMFP in contrast to the poorest. UMNFP was 1.7 times more in women having more than three children in contrast to women who had less than or equal to three children. However, women's age, women socioeconomic status, and working status of women were found to be statistically significant with an unmet need for spacing in the multinomial model. In addition, the age of women, region, number of living children, socioeconomic status, and knowledge of family planning was found to be statistically significant with an unmet need for limiting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In the light of our study, overall unmet need is lower in older age and richer wealth quintile while UNMFP is high in women who had more than three children. Policymakers should design interventions to target high-risk populations to overcome the issue of rapid population growth.</p> Muhammad Imran Rehana Yasmeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 7 37 46 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.37-46 Gender stereotypes in the Single National Curriculum, Pakistan. <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Single National Curriculum (SNC) sponsored by the Government of Pakistan aimed to provide a level socio-economic playing field for all students. This paper analyzes the books of grades 1-5 under SNC to specifically test the gender biases and stereotypes promoted within them.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The paper conducts a detailed inquiry of the various instances of overt and covert misogyny encountered in the text and illustrations of these books through the theoretical framework of the hidden curriculum. It looks at what kind of professional and personal activities men and women are depicted to be engaged in. By tallying all gendered illustrations and using qualitative content analysis to assess gendered textual biases, the research questions whether the state is promoting a certain gender ideology through these revised books.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Several problematic depictions of women and the erasure of gendered minorities are revealed, and questions are raised about the purpose of such discrimination in a state-sponsored curriculum. Women are presented in stereotypical caregiving and similar roles in both public and private spaces, with meager representations in sports, STEM, and other professions. The texts also feature heavy religious sub-texts to lend the content credibility. Since the SNC is created and promoted by the state itself, the overt and covert misogyny in the textbooks exposes the state's endorsement of unequal gender norms in the country.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The SNC textbooks are actively promoting the hidden curriculum of gender inequality which will affect the behaviors and beliefs of the next generation.&nbsp; For the playing fields to be leveled for all, the books should have been gender-sensitive and should have actively reduced gender inequalities through their content. &nbsp;Alas, there are great discrepancies in the vision and the actual reality of the Single National Curriculum.</p> Maira Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-13 2021-11-13 7 47 59 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.47-59 Tracing the roots of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); domestic violence & abuse (DVA) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Though the factors causing domestic violence and abuse (DVA), such as mental illness among men is well-research, the mental health consequences of DVA for the victims (women) are seldom explored.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This case-control study was conducted upon a sample of 200 women (100 cases and 100 controls) presenting to the psychiatric outpatient department at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad. After taking written informed consent, patients with a clinical diagnosis of general anxiety disorder (GAD) were invited to participate in this research. Their data was collected via a self-structured questionnaire inquiring about basic biodata, sociodemographic details, GAD diagnosis, GAD 7 scale score and DVA history. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 22. 0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the study sample was 36 ± 09 years (range 23 to 49). 164 (82%) women were present in a marital relationship, and the remaining were either separated, divorced, or widowed. The mean duration for which the survivors suffered abuse was 7.3 ± 2.5 years, and 153 (76.5%) suffered from DVA to date. 41 (20.5%) participants made their index visit to the psychiatric facility while the remaining were frequent visitors. The mean GAD score of the sample was recorded to be 18 ± 3, with a majority of the patients having moderate or severe anxiety. DVA was more prevalent among the GAD group (p-value 0.034). Additionally, within the GAD group, a higher GAD &amp; scale score correlated with a longer DVA duration and active DVA infliction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a significant association between DVA and GAD. However, more research is needed to further explore the relationship, for better understanding, and maybe developed upon which more suited treatment protocols may be devised. The results also highlight the prevalence of DVA and the need to apply interventions and offer women help.</p> Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui Khalil Ahmed Kazi Jawad Ahmed Qadri Aatir Hanif Rajput Hadiqa Pandhiani Masood Ahmed Memon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 7 6 10 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.6-10 Domestic violence since dark ages till pandemic impacting the lives of women: Analyzing through the lens of ethical, Islamic and Pakistani legal law perspectives <p><strong>Background: </strong>Domestic violence is a public health issue across the globe. Almost one-third of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of violence by their intimate partner in their lifetime. Domestic violence is viewed as a prevalent social and public health issue in Pakistan. Domestic violence includes intimate partner violence such as sexual or physical violence.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation: </strong>In this paper, domestic violence a real-life case scenario has been examined and analyzed from the lens of ethical, Islamic, and Pakistani law perspectives. Domestic violence's ethical and moral aspect has been studied in light of Kantian and ethical theories.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results: </strong>Domestic violence is not only disrespecting women’s fundamental right to live, but it is also harming them in physical, social, mental and psychological aspects of health.&nbsp; Islam has completely forbidden any violence against women and encouraged men to be kind and respectful towards them.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This paper reveals the case study encountered, the position taken, supported by the ethical principles, the arguments and counter-arguments for examining domestic violence. Lastly, it is an individual's and our society's responsibility to work for the safety and promotion of women's empowerment in every stage of life.</p> Sumaira Warwani Anila Farhan Sumera Zulfiqar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 7 60 64 10.29052/2413-4252.v7.i1.2021.60-64