International Journal on Women Empowerment 2023-02-22T23:14:31+00:00 IJWE Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<strong>International Journal on Women Empowerment </strong>(published from Pakistan)&nbsp;is an annual, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal. This multidisciplinary journal publishes research and scholarly ideas about Women's health and social issues, with the objective to endorse Women's Empowerment.&nbsp;<strong>IJWE</strong>&nbsp;is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.&nbsp;</p> Women Empowerment through Waste Recycling in Africa. Case of Douala, Cameroon. 2023-02-22T12:42:59+00:00 Sophie Ebot Agborabang <p><strong>Background:</strong> In the city of Douala, Cameroon, the activities like collecting, sorting, trading, and sometimes even processing waste materials, provide an income opportunity for large numbers of poor people, where women represent a great number. However, the informal sector is usually characterized by poor working and living conditions, uncertain incomes, low social status, and little or no support from local governments. Thus, it remains doubtful if they will achieve more power and freedom as well as economic empowerment through participation in the informal waste recycling sector. This study aims to analyze the relationship between women's roles, participation in the informal sector of recycling, positive and negative outcomes, and empowerment in the city of Douala.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study exploits both qualitative and quantitative methods using the survey as the data collection technique. The sampling was carried out by random sampling technique, and the criteria for sampling were women waste pickers in the Bonamousadi, Ndokoti, and Bonanjo dumpsites.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of this study indicates that female waste pickers, apart from being housewives, are active in collecting, upgrading, and selling valuable waste materials. They work as individual waste pickers and are exposed to many risks at the dumpsite as they work with no protective equipment and no legal protection. They face unstable incomes and social stigma, and most cannot make decisions in the household. Though their living conditions have improved and they have gained greater independence in purchasing, they have not achieved more power nor gained any empowerment as many indicated that they perceive themselves in the lowest rung of the ladder of power and freedom where there is almost no freedom to make decisions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Empowering women waste pickers through creating waste organizations or groups and integration with the formal sector might have a significant correlation with achieving more power and freedom and changing the perception of the public on waste pickers. This is the basis for achieving more sustainable waste management and a better environment.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maternal and Fetal Attachment before Birth: Trends in Pregnant Women of Urban Karachi 2023-02-22T12:43:00+00:00 Shelina Bhamani Anita Attaullah Hajra Malik Faiqa Binte Aamir Areeba Syed Amir Raza Lumaan Sheikh <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Maternal-fetal attachment is a multidimensional phenomenon and product of diverse physiological, psychological, and socio-emotional factors. Prenatal period plays a crucial role in forming this bond and further predicts post-natal attachment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The present research was conducted using cross-sectional survey design. 66 participants filled the survey regarding practices, perceptions and attitudes of maternal-fetal attachment, after attending an online session on “Talking to the Baby in the Womb”.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Analysis revealed that participants eat healthy during prenatal period and talk to their baby in tummy. Wondering when the baby starts thinking, feeling and hearing within also aids in forming maternal-fetal relationship. Statistically significant difference (p=0.013) was found between HCP and PW in terms of attitude towards feeding the baby and perception of mother giving up for the baby (p=0.04).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Following research allows us to study the differences in the practices between healthcare providers and pregnant women so that interventions can be designed accordingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Empowering Women; basic right for being an Individual. 2023-02-22T12:43:01+00:00 S. Faiza Batool Ujala Sajid Hira Qaisar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Concept Women empowerment emerge from the middle of 20th century and now recognize globally. Empower the women from discrimination, inequality and injustice are the basic aspects of this approach. Gender equality, economic empowerment, social empowerment, political empowerment and education are all the integral of women empowerment which provide the safe space where they have rights for education, equal opportunities in social, economic and political status.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>To investigate the gaps between the knowledge of empowering women and to found the real struggle of women on daily basis we applied both the quantitative and qualitative data collection procedure, which include the questionnaire with close-ended question and the interviews with selected women from different region.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Women with different background have different approaches and their empowerment vary according to it even though culture and social bounding’s hinder the pathway of empowerment. But it has been noted that the education and training sessions are helpful in bringing change in one’s narrative and behavior. Empowering the women; it’s not only the concept of girls education right, it also about their social, political and economic stability.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Being human beings, women should also be treated as equals. With the growing world and interest of people in women's empowerment, it became the central aspect of each country's policies. We apply a mix-method research approach to address women's empowerment and the gaps in its knowledge, which include a questionnaire and interviews of the selected women. Hence our study suggests that training programs in different areas increase awareness and empowerment of women; however, societal and cultural barriers are the prominent hindrance associated with women's empowerment. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Women Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities. 2023-02-22T12:43:01+00:00 Anna Askari Ammad Jawed Salvat Askari <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pakistan is a country where women's education has been a topic of discussion for decades. Despite the government's efforts to improve the literacy rate and promote education, many challenges still prevent women from gaining access to education. This research paper explores the challenges and opportunities for women's education in Pakistan and how to overcome those challenges.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study qualitatively analyzed the existing literature on women's education in Pakistan. Using data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, articles from Academic Journals, Reports, chapters, and Newspapers. The analysis is based on the challenges and opportunities for women's education in Pakistan.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Pakistan's literacy rate is 46%, with a significant urban-rural divide, with 80% literacy in urban areas and 20% in rural areas. Cultural norms and conservative attitudes towards gender roles, poverty, lack of educational facilities, security, and a scarcity of female teachers are the main challenges to women's education in Pakistan. However, the government of Pakistan is trying to improve women's education through initiatives like girls' schools, scholarships, e-learning, and technology.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> women's education in Pakistan faces numerous challenges, including cultural norms, poverty, and lack of educational facilities. However, opportunities such as government initiatives, women's empowerment, and the role of technology also exist to improve women's education. It is essential to highlight the challenges to overcome them and progress.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Women's Perceptions and Practices Regarding Menstrual Hygiene: A Qualitative Study. 2023-02-22T12:43:01+00:00 Syeda Farah Batool Sarwat O Shafiq <p><strong>Background:</strong> Menstrual hygiene is a crucial component of women's health and wellbeing. Women still encounter major difficulties in controlling their menstrual periods, though. This qualitative study intends to investigate how women view menstrual hygiene, including the difficulties they encounter and the methods they employ to control their periods. Many women still struggle with menstruation hygiene, especially in low- and middle-income nations. Women may experience considerable difficulties managing their periods due to a lack of access to menstrual products and facilities, cultural taboos and shame around menstruation, and other factors. These issues may have a substantial impact on the health, education, and employment prospects of women.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study used a qualitative research design, employing semi-structured interviews with 20 women of reproductive age (18-30 years) living in urban areas. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically, following an iterative coding and categorization process.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study showed that several variables, including culture, education, socioeconomic level, and availability of menstruation products, had an impact on how women perceive and practice menstrual hygiene. While some women claimed access to sufficient menstruation products and facilities, others encountered serious difficulties managing their periods due to a lack of access to menstrual products, clean water, and sanitation facilities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Menstrual hygiene is essential to women's health and wellbeing. For women to manage their periods safely and respectably, access to adequate menstruation products, clean water, and sanitation facilities, education and awareness campaigns, and confronting cultural taboos and stigma are all necessary.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Globalization-Female Labour Participation Nexus in Pakistan: A Dynamic Analysis. 2023-02-22T12:43:00+00:00 Azeema Begum <p><strong>Background:</strong> The process of globalization is defined as a process of integration with the globe through trade, foreign investment, and the transfer of technology and migration from one region to another. There is a need to investigate whether increasing dependency and interconnectedness among various regions can bring any advantage for female labor while opening a new venue or creating hurdles. The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of globalization on female labor participation using time series data. This study also considers the impact of the economic situation, education, and health on the female labour supply in Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Female labour force participation rate is a dependent variable, whereas; Globalization Index, Economic Misery Index, school enrolment ratio, fertility rate, and GDP growth are independent variables. The ARDL bound testing approach has been used for data analysis to estimate the model. The time series data was collected from secondary data from 1973 to 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study's finding proves globalization's negative and significant impact on female labour participation in Pakistan. The increasing trend of globalization is not supporting domestic employment opportunities for females. Rather, it pushed females back from the labor market due to the demand for more skilled labor and the replacing human labor with technology. Moreover, the lack of education and health facilities and the worse economic situation have overturned globalization's positive effects on females.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the study's findings, it is suggested to improve female skills through investment in different education, training, and skills development programs to cope with the imminent challenges of globalization on females in Pakistan. Even though researchers have highlighted the impact of globalization on female labour, however; it has not been investigated comprehensively in the context of Pakistan. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the impact of globalization on females, considering the Economic Misery Index, school enrolment ratio, fertility rate, and GDP growth.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Battered women continue living in abusive relationships in Pakistan. 2023-02-22T23:14:31+00:00 Yusra Saleem Komal . <p>Cultural practices, societal views, and customs all significantly impact the mental health of women in Pakistan. Religious and ethnic tensions, attitudes that dehumanize women, extended family structures, and the role in-laws play in women's daily life are major issues and stressors. Such actions have severely marginalized Pakistani women, which has had a negative psychological impact. Men can now control women by using violence against them, which has become one of the acceptable methods for doing so. Still, Pakistani women are generally better off than their counterparts when compared to other South Asian nations. No one hypothesis can categorically foresee this tendency on the part of battered women because the problem is little understood and rarely discussed. A review of the domestic violence was conducted to determine the most important factors that forecast a woman's likelihood of staying in or leaving an abusive relationship.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##