Identification of correlation between human papillomavirus and prostate cancer: Bradford Hill Criteria Based Evaluation.

  • Muhammad Usman Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7301-2043
  • Mukhtiar Ahmad Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3615-3995
  • Yasir Hameed Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6378-1962
  • Hamad Ahmed Department of Eastern Medicine, Government College University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0703-9077
  • Muhammad Safdar Hussain Department of Eastern Medicine, Government College University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5304-3384
  • Jalil Ur Rehman University College of conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2047-4206
  • Rizwan Arshad University College of conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5092-2490
  • Muhammad Atif University College of conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3492-6664
Keywords: Prostate Cancer, Bradford Hill Criteria, Statistical Meta-Analysis, Human Papillomavirus.

Abstract

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) association has effectively been decoded in prostate cancer (PC) worldwide with controverting conclusions. Though the different groups of researchers explored the potential association of HPV with PC using meta-analysis but it still remains controversial due to the major limitations. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the potential link of HPV with PC using Bradford Hill criteria.

Methodology: Initially using PubMed, we extracted studies that associated HPV to PC. Then, to assess the potential association of HPV with PC, an examination of the available data on HPV in PC, normal/benign samples was conducted using all the major Bradford Hill criteria postulates. Furthermore, to improve the authenticity of the present study, we have also critically evaluated the methodologies of the identified studies to check the possibility of false-negative and false-positive results.

Results: After a careful assessment of the previous studies against Bradford Hill criteria postulates, we observed that all the major postulates were not fulfilled, including strength, temporality, consistency, plausibility, biological gradient, experiment, specificity, and analogy.

Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review suggest no casual association of HPV with PC.

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Published
2021-06-01
How to Cite
Usman, M., Ahmad, M., Hameed, Y., Ahmed, H., Hussain, M. S., Rehman, J. U., Arshad, R., & Atif, M. (2021). Identification of correlation between human papillomavirus and prostate cancer: Bradford Hill Criteria Based Evaluation. International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR), 9(2), 248-256. https://doi.org/10.29052/IJEHSR.v9.i2.2021.248-256