Bacterial load determination of poultry feed with seasonality effect in Karachi, Pakistan.

  • Shajeela Iram 1. Department of Microbiology, Baqai College of Veterinary Sciences, Baqai Medical University, Karachi-Pakistan 2. Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-Pakistan.
  • Tabinda Khawaja Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-Pakistan.
  • Mehmood ul Hassan Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal Balochistan-Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Jawad Khan Livestock Dairy Development Board, Islamabad, Karachi-Pakistan.
  • Tanveer Abbas Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-Pakistan.
Keywords: Food-Borne Illness, Bacterial Contamination, Total Viable Count, Seasonal Variation.


Background: The escalating rate of food-borne diseases via poultry feeds necessitates the characterization of the pathogens to reduce the health risk factor for humans and animals. The poultry feed microbial analysis help to control food-borne illness. In addition, the knowledge about seasonal effects on microbial growth helps the manufacturers to take precautionary measures in alarming months to maintain the standard quality of poultry feed.

Methodology: This study was designed to identify and enumerate bacteria and their seasonal variation. Total feed samples (n=204) were evaluated through traditional culture techniques, microscopic inspection, and biochemical properties. However, bacterial load was determined by using the total viable count.

Results: As a result, five genera, including Salmonella enterica (39.05%), Escherichia coli (22.48%), Bacillus subtilis (18.34%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.24%), and Streptococcus sp (8.87%), were isolated. The proportion of occurrence of the bacterial load was lowest in December-February (64.4%) and highest in June-August (96.2%). Whereas in September-November was (87.6%) and March-May (77.5%). On the whole, the total percentage of positive samples was 82.8%. Statistical analysis revealed that (9.9×10-8 cfu/g) was the highest viable bacterial count recorded from June to August. The presence of food-borne pathogens, especially S.enterica and E.coli, is bothersome. Moreover, June to August is considered the most troubling month due to the elevated level of contamination.

Conclusion: To evade microbial contamination, the microbiological security rules must be followed throughout the process of formulation and storage period, especially in sensitive hot and humid months of June to August. Also, standard inspection should be taken to control the dissemination of food-borne illness.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ganguly S, Praveen PK. Economically important poultry diseases of worldwide concern: A brief review. Int. J. Pharm. Biomed. Res. 2016;3(5):1-3.
2. Sebho HK. Exotic chicken status, production performance and constraints in Ethiopia: a review. Asian J. Poult. Sci. 2016;10(1):30-39.
3. Suarez DL, Miller PJ, Koch G, Mundt E, Rautenschlein S. Newcastle disease, other avian paramyxoviruses, and avian metapneumovirus infections. Diseases of poultry. 2020:109-166.
4. Bryan FL, Doyle MP. Health risks and consequences of Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry. J. Food Prot. 1995 ;58(3):326-344.
5. Vo TH, Le NH, Cao TT, Nuorti JP, Minh NN. An outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis linked to a bread takeaway shop in Ben Tre City, Vietnam. International J. Infect. Dis. 2014 ;26:128-131.
How to Cite
Iram, S., Khawaja, T., Hassan, M. ul, Khan, M. J., & Abbas, T. (2021). Bacterial load determination of poultry feed with seasonality effect in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR), 10(1), 06-14.

Most read articles by the same author(s)