Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from clinical and drinking water samples during Cholera Outbreak in Khairpur Sindh Pakistan
Background: Cholera is a diarrheal disease that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that transmits through contaminated water, food, oral-fecal route and spread through poor sanitation system. This study aims to investigate the reports of clinical and drinking water samples during an epidemic in Pakistan.
Accepted Article | This is not yet the definitive version of record, it is to give early visibility of the article | An open access article published ahead of print under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) | DOI and Page numbers will be assigned to the final version before inclusion into the next issue
Methodology: This study was conducted in District Khairpur including 660 samples (360 from clinical and 300 from drinking water) from 2014-2016. All samples were enriched in Alkaline peptone water for 6 hours and then streaked on TCBS agar, incubated at 35ºC for 24 hours. The next day standard microbiological, biochemical, serological techniques were used for the identification of V. cholerae and further identification was performed using PCR.
Results: Out of 360 clinical samples, 76(21.11%) were positive for V. cholerae. The species-specific Outer membrane protein W precursor (ompW) gene was amplified and shown at the correct size (588 bp) through agarose gel electrophoresis. The serotyping revealed that the isolates belonged to serogroup Inaba, O1. cholerae O1 strains shown typical El Tor phenotype similar to V. cholerae El Tor strain N16961 (PBR VP+) used as the reference strain in this study. All age groups were affected where the highest onset was seen among those aged 19 years and above. The culture of drinking water (n=300), observed negative on TCBS agar.
Conclusion: As far as our knowledge, this is the first time when the presence of V. cholerae El Tor peak has been reported for causing cholera outbreaks in Khairpur Sindh, Pakistan. However, these findings can be used for further investigations and recognizing control measures.
2. Weill FX, Domman D, Njamkepo E, Almesbahi AA, Naji M, Nasher SS, Rakesh A, Assiri AM, Sharma NC, Kariuki S, Pourshafie MR. Genomic insights into the 2016–2017 cholera epidemic in Yemen. Nature. 2019;565(7738):230-233.
3. Kuleshov KV, Kostikova A, Pisarenko SV, Kovalev DA, Tikhonov SN, Savelievа IV, Saveliev VN, Vasilieva OV, Zinich LS, Pidchenko NN, Kulichenko AN. Comparative genomic analysis of two isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa El Tor isolated during an outbreak in Mariupol in 2011. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2016;44:471-478.
4. Safa A, Nair GB, Kong RY. Evolution of new variants of Vibrio cholerae O1. Trends microbiol. 2010;18:46-54.
5. Siddique AK, Cash R. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era. Cholera Outbreaks. 2013:1-6.
Copyright (c) 2021 The Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
By submitting a manuscript in IJEHSR, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the Copyright Notice