Altered olfaction, obesity, and glycosylated hemoglobin; Indicators of accelerated ageing in apparently healthy, Pakistan's young aged population
Background: Obesity is an associated risk of devastating diseases and increased mortality. Thereby, the study objective was to evaluate the predisposing obese individuals towards accelerated ageing and determine the smell test as the possible indicator for early biological ageing.
Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Karachi, Pakistan, from 8th June 2016- 4th December 2019. A total of 412 individuals were included in the study. The data for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), sniffing score, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were collected from the target population. The screening 12 test was intended to be used for the examination of smell disorders in humans. The test results were used to differentiate between Normosmia, Hyposmia, and Anosmia.
Results: Four hundred and twelve participants were recruited in the study with a mean age of 32.65±12.6 years and divided into three age groups; 20 to 36, 37 to 53, and 54 to 70 years. There were 194 (47.1 %) females and 218 (52.9 %) males. Out of the total, 19.9 % of individuals were underweight, 58.5 % were normal, 21.6 % were overweight. It was also observed that of the total, 24 % of participants were pre-diabetic. Cross analysis of the variables showed that the olfaction decreased as the BMI was increasing (p=0.000 for obese).
Conclusion: As the sense of olfaction decreased with an increase in BMI and HbA1c levels, it was concluded that obese individuals have an increased predisposition towards accelerated ageing and the increased risk of predisposition to diabetes to obesity significantly accelerate the process of biological ageing.
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