The multifactorial burden of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus: a study from clinical settings of University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
Background: Diabetes is a multifactorial disease posing a socioeconomic threat to the worldwide community. The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is continuously increasing in Pakistan and becoming a serious concern for the general public as well as concerned clinicians. This case-control study aimed to analyze the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with T2DM in the Pakistani population.
Methodology: A structured questionnaire was filled by the T2DM patients attending the diabetic clinic at Dow University Hospital. Non-diabetic subjects were recruited from the general population. Participants were questioned regarding their age, body mass index (BMI), educational status, diabetes management practices and comorbidities associated with T2DM.
Results: Our results suggest that BMI, gender, increasing age, educational status are significantly associated with T2DM. Our data also suggested that approximately 80% of T2DM patients had at least one comorbidity, whereas 59 % had two or more comorbidities. The most prevalent comorbidities found in our study group were in the order of Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) (15.8 %), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (14.4 %), Bone disease (14 %) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (12.6 %) respectively.
Conclusion: Compared to worldwide data, our results are in accordance with the global prevalence with respect to age, gender and BMI, with CKD being the most prevalent comorbidity in contrast to CVD found worldwide.
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