Awareness regarding complications of type II diabetes mellitus among diabetics in Karachi, Pakistan

  • Huda Younis Department of Community Health Sciences, Ziauddin University
  • Safa Younis Department of Community Health Sciences, Ziauddin University
  • Saad Ahmad Department of Community Health Sciences, Ziauddin University
Keywords: Knowledge, Diabetic Awareness, Diabetes Management, Diabetic Complications, Pakistan


Background: Research shows that people with diabetes have an astonishingly low level of awareness about diabetes, its related complications and management. The aim of our study was to assess the knowledge of diabetics regarding complications of Diabetes Mellitus Type II. This will help us identify knowledge amongst patients regarding their long-term illness.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a time span of two years in all three Ziauddin Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Both male and female patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Type II aged 30 years and above were included in the study. Those suffering from Diabetes Mellitus type I, Diabetes Insipidus, and Gestational Diabetes were excluded. A sample size (n) of 151 was calculated, with the assumption that the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Pakistan is 11%. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Chi-square test was applied to present association between study variables.

Results: Out of the total 157 subjects with diabetes, 83 (53.3%) were males and 74 (46.5%) were females with a mean age of 53.8±11.9 years. 77.7% of patients were having cardiac disease awareness (p=0.042), and 60.5% of participants were aware of eye problems (p=0.016). Only 33.1% of patients were aware of stroke as a potential complication (p=0.05). Furthermore, awareness of nerve weakness was 40.8% (p=0.355) and kidney problems were 54.8% (p=0.019).

Conclusion: Diabetic patients included in this study were aware of most of the complications of diabetes and a significant difference was found in those patients who had personally experienced these complications.  


Download data is not yet available.


1. Khan I, Gaohar QY, Baig A, Khan FA. Level of awareness regarding diabetes and its management in diabetic population of Pakistan, and highlighting the role of consultant pharmacist. JPMA. J Pak Med Assoc.2014; 64(5):574-575.
2. Sicree, Richard, Johnathan Shaw, and Paul Zimmett. "Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance." Diabetes Atlas 4 (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 27 July 2012. Available from: http://
3. Country and regional data on diabetes [Internet]. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; 2011 [cited 2018Dec3]. Available from:
4. Obirikorang Y, Obirikorang C, Anto EO. Knowledge of complications of diabetes mellitus among patients visiting the diabetes clinic at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana: a descriptive study. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2016; 16. Available from:
5. Basit A, Fawwad A, Qureshi H, Shera AS. Prevalence of diabetes, pre-diabetes and associated risk factors: second National Diabetes Survey of Pakistan (NDSP), 2016–2017. BMJ open. 2018;8(8): e020961.
How to Cite
Younis, H., Younis, S., & Ahmad, S. (2019). Awareness regarding complications of type II diabetes mellitus among diabetics in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR), 7(1), 47-54.