Assessment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus risk factors in local population
Background: The gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Risk management of GDM should be done at first prenatal visit. As it is the most common metabolic complication of pregnancy, the present study was focused on finding out the risk factors of GDM in local population. Method: We evaluated the risk factors of GDM in 200 females who were randomly tested for GDM with 75 g Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28th weeks of pregnancy. A detailed questionnaire was administered in this cross sectional study. Results: The most commonly observed risk factor was family history DM,117 patients (p<0.001and odd ratio as 40.4 [17.4 to 93.6]), obesity,113 patients (P< 0.001, odd ratio as 4.5[2.2 to 9.2]), pregnancy related stress in109 (P< 0.001, odd ratio as 4.8[2.4 to 9.5]), anemia in 88 females (P=0.003, odd ratio as 3.5[1.5 to 8.0]), history of abortions,76 (P< 0.001), odd ratio as 2.9[1.59 to 5.34]). Furthermore, stress, hypertension, lack of exercise were significantly associated risk factors of GDM. Only 93 females who had fatigue during pregnancy (P=0.718 and odd ratio as 0.88[0.45 to 1.71]) had association with development of GDM that was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The most commonly occurring risk factor of GDM in our population were obesity, family history of diabetes, stress, hypertension and lack of exercise. Unusual association was observed between iron deficiency anemia and GDM.