Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among obese diabetic subjects
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. MS in obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of MS in obese T2DM subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions.
Methods: Obese T2DM (n=70) and normal healthy subjects (n=30) of both genders were selected from hospitals and diabetic centers of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of MS was estimated by utilizing criteria of the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III.
Results: The prevalence of MS using IDF definition in obeseT2DM subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p≤0.05) in females (45.70%) as compared to males (30.0%). While, using NCEP-ATP III definition the overall prevalence of MS in obese T2DM subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p≤0.05) in females (47.1%) than males (38.6%). The development of MS was highly observed between 31 – 40 years of age under criteria of both definitions.
Conclusion It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of MS is increasing significantly in obese T2DM subjects by using IDF and NCEP – ATP III definitions. However, IDF is more stringent for defining MS. Therefore, it is needed to initiate the preventive measures of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.