The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is a peer-reviewed journal. It aims at providing a holistic understanding of society. Its objective is to encourage and publish research, analysis and informed discussion on all aspects of women

The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is the official journal of the Women Research Division, of AEIRC, provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of “WOMEN”.

ISSN 2413-4252

Annual, Double Blind Peer-Review, Open Access 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.


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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.


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International Journal of Women Empowerment

Volume 2, 2016

Examining the Social and Cultural Barriers Present for Women Seeking Healthcare in Rural Communities of Karachi, Pakistan

Nofel Karatela1, Maria Altaf2, Shamoon Noushad2, Amna Khan2, Shershah Syed4 & Sadaf Ahmed2,3

  1. University of Florida
  2. Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre
  3. Department of Physiology, University of Karachi
  4. Koohi Goth Hospital


Study was an interview-based cross-sectional survey with an objective of investigating if there are any social or cultural factors present in rural areas, which makes it difficult for women living in these communities to seek proper health care services. The subjects of this study were rural women who came to receive treatment for their gestation and related complications at Koohi Goth Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The variables that were explored included the level of education, socioeconomic status, social/family support, and level of awareness regarding proper birth care. Data collection included interviewing these women who were admitted to the outpatient department (O.P.D.) of the hospital and asking them questions concerning these variables. Much of the participants who were included for the study were conceiving for the 3rd and 4th time and they were in 3rd week of gestational period. The result of this study showed that women living in the rural areas were less educated due to their low socio-economic status. Disproportionate number of women claimed that learning about maternal health and related issues were never included in education they received.


Intimate Partner Violence: An Inaudible Sound

Alizah Alaman & Munira Minaz Ali

Agha khan University Hospital, Nursing Department

Corresponding Author:


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as a behavior in an intimate relationship that determines physical, emotional or sexual harms including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and other controlling behaviors on women by her intimate partner. This dreadful violence is pervasive in both low and high income countries and mostly encountered by female population. Likewise, Pakistan is one of the low-income countries where 57.6% women suffer from physical abuse by their intimate partners. Mostly this violence is not reported as people lack awareness about women rights and considers violence as a domestic right. This paper attempts to provide a deep insight about the causes of physical violence in an intimate relation, its health implications along with possible recommendations to overcome it.


Catastrophizing Pain; A More Feminine Characteristics of Pain & Discomfort

Uzma Naseem1 & Sadaf Ahmed1,2

  1. Psychophysiology Research lab, University of Karachi
  2. Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre

Corresponding Authors:


Catastrophizing is associated to occurrence and maintenance of magnified pain threshold, pain is related to worry and fear which leads to inability in diverting attention away from pain due to which psychological distress are supposed to be high irrespective to any type of discomfort. Fear of pain is a characteristic feature which describes a maladaptive cognitive expression by sufferers with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Catastrophizing pain has been interpreted as an emotional variable as fear of pain and has been defined as highly negative expressive reaction to pain eliciting stimuli involving a high degree of mobilization for avoidance behavior which inversely reduces the quality of life. The Aim of the present study was to evaluate susceptibility of catastrophizing pain among male and female sufferers. Moreover, this paper discriminates between those who authentically perceive pain to that who catastrophize. Moreover, find out reasons behind that catastrophizes suffer heightened pain experiences and increased emotional distress and how do we conclude whether pain in the absence of peripheral pathology is ‘real’ or not. In a cross sectional study, 140 individuals have been enrolled from general population who have been suffering from any type of chronic pain with exception of Menopausal women, Cardiovascular diseases, Nephropathy and cancer, and acceptance of age between 18 to 50 years. For evaluation multistage random selection procedure have been performed by governing questionnaire to examine their pain duration, intensity, frequency, and degree of multi psychological feeling using pain catastrophizing scale of Michael JL Sullivan. The results indicated a manipulative behavior in expression of pain or discomfort more common among females than males. This might be due to many psychosocial constraints that in turn exaggerate the catastrophizing of pain reporting and emotional instability in females. By discriminating between true and fake point of view in pain it was concluded that Pain catastrophizing in most of the individual found to be pre-existing trait of mindset due to their daily practices on the other hand it was observed that small ratio of females who reported low worst pain intensity with less catastrophized comparatively some of the proportion of females reported high degree of worst pain with high catastrophizing the inverse factors between them was emotional frustration, which was low in fake pain preceptors this is because people may not undergo emotional frustration after exploring exaggerated pain behavior to seek attention.


Crigler-Najjar Syndrome: A Rare Fatality

Alizah Alaman, Munira Minaz Ali, Nazish Hussain Ali Pachani & Anmol Minaz Ali

Agha khan University Hospital, Nursing Department

Corresponding Author:


This paper reviews Crigler-Najjar Syndrome as a rare fatality affecting individuals in the early years of life. It’s rare incidence, mis-diagnosis and severe complications resulting in death at the early age has cause difficulty in determining its exact frequency in general population. This syndrome, is described by the accumulation of un-conjugated bilirubin in the body due to the inheritance of defects UGT1A1 genes. This anomaly disrupts the bilirubin mechanism at a greater extent. The high level of bilirubin in the body manifests itself in terms of specific signs and symptoms among which jaundice is most common and well-known. Therefore, treatment is primarily directed towards decreasing accumulation of un-conjugated bilirubin in the body. Aspects of liver transplant can be seen as permanent treatment plan at risk to benefit ratio.


Diet and the Conceiving Mother

Jonathan Johnson, Arsalan Aslam, M.Salman Alam & Ahmad Yaar Baig

Agha khan University Hospital, Nursing Department

Corresponding Author:


There is a lack of awareness among the people of the community regarding diet during pregnancy. Diet is not only important for pregnant women but is equally important for female of pubertal age, as insufficient nutrients during this time may cause serious consequences in later life. At the community level it is important to make awareness for people about a balanced diet, it’s important during reproductive age and for a pregnant woman. At the institutional level it is important to make healthcare accessible for the clients and make daily checkups possible, affordable and accessible for the pregnant women and also for the client who are in their reproductive age. In a nutshell, diet is an essential component to look after especially for women in her reproductive health and for pregnant women. Development of a proper diet plan for the mother, awareness programs on importance of diet and making healthcare accessible for the clients are some of the necessary steps needed for dealing with this problem.


Lack of Family Planning: The Highlighted Burden

Munira Minaz Ali & Alizah Alaman

Agha khan university Hospital, Nursing Department.


Family planning is defined as a practice through which number of children and the intervals between their births can be controlled. The need of using contraceptives cannot be neglected in Pakistan, as this would result in unwanted pregnancies and un-safe abortions. Illiteracy, lack of knowledge, fear of side effects, and other socio-cultural factors create obstacles in using family planning methods. These obstacles in turn create adverse impacts on women health and society. For instance, failure to use contraceptives can cause unintended pregnancies which would leave the women at the risk of pregnancy related complications resulting in maternal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, multiple pregnancies also cause financial and social distress resulting in lack of ability to fulfill basic needs of a child. Thus, important measures need to be taken to alleviate the precipitating factors and to improve maternal and child health.


Healthy Aging: A Case Report

Nazish Hussain Ali Pachani, Kiran Shoukat Ali, Armish Aziz, Laila Naushad & Zoya Feroz Ali

Agha khan University Hospital, Nursing Department.

Corresponding Author:


The process of aging is considered to be a weakness, disease or death. In reality, this is a myth. In West Virginia the concept of ‘Healthy Aging’ is developed to empower senior members of the country worldwide. This case report illustrates the application of the concept ‘Healthy Aging’ to an institutional setting in Karachi. This group project primarily aimed at how the client thinks, feels, communicates and respond to change in self and environment. The group planned to categorize activities into five components as physical, physiological, psychological, emotional, and spiritual domains. It builds a strong foundation for health promotion and disease prevention in older adults. Clients gain insight and group had an everlasting learning experience in geriatric care.


Inevitable Scars; A Study on Traumatic Verbal, Emotional and Physical Abuse Distressing Females

Syeda Farah Batool, Shamoon Noushad, Maria Alataf & Sadaf Ahmed

  1. Psychophysiology Research lab, University of Karachi
  2. Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre


Women, a name that embraces love respect and honor but unfortunately in the setup of our society it is not applicable as Islam is deliberately pulverized and entwined by socio cultural norms and personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to identify the common psycho-social perspectives among victims exposed such insults in relation with psychosocial correlates. A general survey based study was conducted and females with the age range of 18 to 50 years were interviewed on a predesigned questionnaire with analysis of variables like stress, type of abuse, age of victimization and painful memories. The results were calculated using SPSS VERSION 20. 50% of total respondents has reported Emotional abuse, 24% has reported sexual assault while 25% of them has reported domestic violence. There might be several reasons behind this ill practice in society from socio cultural barrier to mal practice of religious domains. These variables of abuse are not only the mere threats to psychological wellbeing of victims but also have an indirect effect on their prime roles in society as a suppressed entity. Studies have revealed that the causes of exploitation physical or mental from men to women are generally Obedience from the women, Outrage of frustration, Inferiority complex, Psychological disorder, Un-controllable sex desire & Superiority syndrome.




Submission Check – list downloadSubmission Checklist

The articles which are submitted according to the guidelines are processed at a faster pace. To assure the efficient processing, IJWE recommends to go through the following list of things which, as an author, you must keep in view before submission. downloadEditorial and Review Process

Article complying with the guidelines allow editors to respond authors within a week after submission. Please note that this response does not mean that the article is accepted rather, it is an indication that your article has passed the in – house check and is more likely to be sent for peer review.

Manuscripts should be submitted to IJWE via email: submit[at]

Pre – Submission

Before submitting the article, make sure that:

  • You have carefully gone through the journal guidelines and adapted your article accordingly. downloadManuscript Guidelines

    downloadCopyright Form  downloadCopyrights

  • Your article is in idiomatically correct English and there are no spelling errors.
  • You are satisfied with the manuscript.
  • Articles that have been published elsewhere may not be submitted. In other words, any article submitted to IJWE may not be published elsewhere.

The Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in the journal. However, statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion of the Editorial Board or the management of IJWE. All contributions are published at the sole discretion of our editors.

Covering Letter

  • While submitting article, you should submit a comprehensive covering letter explaining the importance of your study, what your study will add to the existing literature, and its impact in a broader scope.
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Type of Article  downloadArticle Template Checklist

IJWE publishes scientific articles, like review and original research papers as well as social articles.

It is highly recommended to mention your article type while submission.


Make sure that all those who are in the authors list have sufficiently contributed in the study so as to be nominated as author in the respective article.  Make sure to mention:

  • Full names,
  • Current affiliation of all the authors,
  • Complete details including email and postal address should accompany your article.

Ethical Consideration

  • Wherever necessarily required, the authors should declare the ethical approval.
  • Name of the institutional review board who has given approval should be mentioned.
  • Any research involving human subjects should be conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.
  • If animals have been used, it should be mentioned whether the relevant official guidelines for the use of laboratory animals has been followed.

Informed Consent

  • If human sampling are involved in the study, details related with subject information and informed consent are mandatory.
  • In case of children, the written informed consent should be obtained from parents or guardians.
  • In situations when it was not feasible or possible to obtain written informed consent, the reasons should be mentioned in detail.
  • In studies involving occupational participants, permission of employer is mandatory.

Conflict of Interest

In a matter of conflict/s of interest:

  • Editor-in-chief will act as the point of contact for questions relating to research and publication integrity.
  • The institutes/organizations will be informed if any misconduct is suspected by their researchers, and provide evidence to support the concerns.
  • Cooperation will be provided with the investigations and questions about misconduct allegations.
  • Retractions will be issued, if required.

Source of Funding

  • The authors should state source of funding with grant number (if any).
  • In case, if no external support was available, it should be mention clearly.
  • When the support was taken from commercial company, the role of funders in the study design, data collection, data analysis, statistical analysis, etc. should be elaborated.

Dual Publication downloadPlagiarism Policy

  • If some part of the article, figure or any result has already been submitted, accepted or published elsewhere, it should be mentioned in the covering letter.
  • If part of results, table or figure from someone else publication is used, the authors should provide permission to reuse them in an open access journal under the open access license.

Publication Fee

  • The authors should declare in the covering letter that, if the article is accepted, they will pay the publication fee as per fee structure prescribed by International Journal of Women Empowerment. downloadPublishing Fee

download1. Artice Template Checklist

download2. Submission Checklist

download3. Copyrights

download3a. Copyright Form

download4. Manuscript Guidelines

download5. Plagiarism Policy

download6. Publishing Fee

download7. Duties of Authors

download8. Duties of Editors

download9. Duties of Reviewers

download10. Peer Reviewers

download11. Reviewer Application

download12. Editorial and Review Process



Shershah Syed

Deputy Editor-in-Chief

Sadaf Ahmed

Managing Editor

Shamoon Noushad


International Editors

Hiba Jafri

United States of America

Jama Mohummad


Kaneez Fatima


Syed A. Aziz


Wendy Marijnissen



United Arab Emirates

Nelam Barkat

United Kingdom

National Editors

Nighat Shah (APIH, JSMU)

Hilda Saeed (Shirkat Gah)

Asma Makhani (AKUH)

Suboohi Mehdi (Koohi Goth)

Neelofer Sultana (SMBBMC)

Ambreen Asif Qureshi (DIHE)

Shaheen Zafar (ATIA)

Riaz Sheikh (SZABST)

Faria Ahsan (Merlin)

Kausar S. Khan (AKU)

Sheema Kermani (Tehrik-e-Niswan)

Zafar I. Abbassi (BIDE)

Kisa Fatima (DIHE)

Shelina Bahmani (USAID)

Maria Altaf (DIHE)