INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH

Volume 3            Issue 1            March 2015

Generalized review of the successes & challenges of medicine; an insight of the past, present and future prospects

Syed A. Aziz, Shamoon Noushad & Sadaf Ahmed

 Regulatory Toxicology Research Division, Health Canada and Department of Pathology University of Ottawa, Canada.
Advanced Educational Institute and Research Center, Pakistan.
University of Karachi, Physiology

ABSTRACT

Evidence from recent millennia demonstrates the progressive efforts of humans to prevent diagnose and cure diseases. Understanding diseases and developing cures has always been a challenge for various reasons, but the successes surpass the setbacks in terms of discoveries. Overcoming infectious diseases has shown the most successes as well as challenges, and still the case may be so. New technologies are bringing many opportunities for the future. While cures for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, AIDS, etc. still remain to be included in the successes, on the other hand regenerative medicine, nanotechnologies and point of care are very promising developments. In this review we have tried to cover the past,present and future expectation and challenges associated with medicine and surgery.

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Atrocious dietary habits leading females of Karachi towards poly cystic ovary syndrome

Shamoon Noushad, Sidra Afzal, Neelam Barkat, Sadaf Ahmed & Nighat Shah
Advanced Educational Institute and Research Center, Pakistan.
University of Karachi, Physiology
Aga Khan University

ABSTRACT

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder that is responsible for imbalance of hormones affecting women of reproductive age leading to difficulties in period cycle and getting pregnant. Objective The aim of study was to evaluate the routine eating habit of the patients. Methodology The study was conducted in Gynecology ward of Tertiary care hospital. This analytical study was performed after taking consent including those patients, who came to the clinic to report their problem of infertility (married women) and irregular periods problems (unmarried girls), targeted age group was between 25 to 35. Interview based study was conducted which include all the questions related to their eating habits like; food typically eaten in breakfast, lunch, dinner and amount of snacks taken per meal. High intake of carbohydrate and fats also investigated per meal. There BMI and FBS was also calculated. Results Total 300 patients were studied out of which 50 patients were included in the study and the results showed that in PCOS patients the frequency of obesity & overweight is (92%), followed by (66%) of patients had excess carbohydrate/sugar craving while 34% patients had normal eating patterns. High rates of these complications were seen in the series. Conclusion From the results it is suggested that obese women with PCOS requires more attention toward the appropriate management of their dietary habits , as their high BMI and high fasting blood sugar is correlating with abnormal clinical and biochemical features. Calorie intake should be restricted. Diet control along with exercise was suggested to the patients.

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Sources of Academic Stress:
Stress Management among Regular and Executive MBA Students

Maryam Moula Bakhsh & Sayeeda Amber Sayed
Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan
Department Health and Hospital Management Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Background Stress is the wear and tear a human body experience in order to adjust to the continually changing environment. However, too much stress affects health, productivity and relationships. There is increase recognition of stress in academic literature. Stress is basically an emotional imbalance incurred due to multiple reasons e.g. test, projects, paper competitive nature within your chosen field, future projects prospects and financial worries about school. Study Design Cross Sectional Study Survey Size Surveying 100 of Regular and Executive MBA students Survey Side Business Institute of Karachi Duration Four months from Sep to Dec 2014 Sampling Technique Random Sampling Technique Statistical Analysis Include Frequency, Mean±SD and Chi Square Statistical Analysis Tools EpiData, SPSS and Excel Main Outcome Measure Stressors and Stress Management Result Data were collected using Random sampling techniques from 100 participants through a cross sectional survey. The significant stressors reported were pressure due to vastness of curriculum, numerous assignments and dissatisfaction with the class lectures. Major stress reactions were found to be pressure trembling, crying and excessive smoking. Coping strategies were organizing and prioritizing task, getting enough sleep and even taking antidepressants. Conclusion This study provides an insight for initiating efforts to reduce the intensity of academic stress and work out of counseling trial to aid in the sound progression of students’ mind and bodies.

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Frequency and Seasonal Distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Children in Tertiary hospital Karachi – Pakistan

Mohammad Yaseen & Nafisa Hassan Ali
Dow University of Health Sciences

ABSTRACT

Background Malaria vector born disease caused by Plasmodium species is transmitted through female anopheles mosquito. It is becoming a serious health challenge in Pakistan listed among top ten malaria endemic countries. In year 2012, 85,000 malarial cases reported across Sind province. Accumulation of water and poor public healthcare system in post monsoon season facilitates breeding of vector resulting in an increase prevalence of malaria. This study aimed to observe the rate of malaria in children (mean age 07 years) with fever, high temperature, headache and shivering who visited Civil hospital in year 2013. Evaluation of month wise and seasonal distribution of malarial species found to cause disease in Karachi-Pakistan was done. Methods Blood samples collected through finger prick observed by thick and thin microscopy. Immuno chromatography performed to confirm negative microscopy results. Results During period of twelve month, 5519 blood samples screened and 947(18%) found positive for malaria parasites. Most frequent species P. vivax (76%) followed by P. falciparum (24%). Seasonal distribution of malaria patients were 105 in winter, 306 in pre monsoon and 519 in post monsoon. In months of March to September 97-100 % P. vivax species documented and in October to February both P. falciparum and P. vivax found in ratio 1:1. Conclusions Proper awareness regarding wearing of proper protective clothing should be imparted to low socioeconomic people. Non-government and civilian bodies should encourage local population to actively participate in clearing mosquito breeding sites. As number of malarial patients are increasing it is recommended that malaria control programme should also focus on research regarding development of novel compound/synergistic combination effective against drug resistant plasmodium species and anopheles mosquito.

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“Ratio of Gender Dependency”, A Comparative Study between Karachi and Hyderabad’s Populace

Huzaifa Sarfraz, Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad, Nighat Shah & Shershah Syed
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre.
University of Karachi, Physiology
Aga Khan University

ABSTRACT

Objective Karachi and Hyderabad both are metropolitan cities of Pakistan but Karachi is more developed and mobilized city than Hyderabad.This difference may possibly bring change in the gender dependency ratio. Introduction Gender is the socially and culturally shaped characteristics for males and females (sexes) of any society; both genders have to perform the roles which are expected from them. Gender dependency is the result of the cultural practices in any society while the culture in developing societies is masculine by its nature and men are the one who lead, secure and are responsible for bread earning for their families. Methodology To confirm this fact, data from 500 respondents was collected from Karachi and Hyderabad, age between 25 to 40 years, Questions about respondent’s experience, hesitation, insecurity, independency in decision making were also the part of detail questionnaire. Results this study shows that the ratio of educated population was high in Hyderabad. In both cities females were more dependent than males, Females of Karachi were more confident and independent in their lives and the level of insecurity was high in females of Hyderabad. Conclusion Findings proposed the importance of education, development and mobility on the road to independent life.

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Role of focused Ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Pediatric population. Selection of a standard diagnostic criterion

Sayani R, Mustahsan SM, Ali AAM , Anwar M
Interventional Radiologist, Dept of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital
Sindh Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences
Pediatric Radiologist, Dept of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the diagnostic role of focused ultrasound of right iliac fossa in clinically suspected cases of acute appendicitis in pediatric population and its value as a standard diagnostic tool in that age group Material and Method A retrospective, cohort study was conducted at radiology department of Agha Khan University involving 239 children less than 16 years with clinically suspected appendicitis referred to radiology department from January 2009 to October 2011 were included. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting signs and symptoms, sonographic, surgical findings and histopathological results. Results Two hundred and thirty nine patients with clinical suspicion of appendicitis were referred for focused ultrasound for appendix. Ultrasound examination showed 59 cases (24.6%) positive for appendicitis and thus they were operated. All of these were positive on histopathology. The remaining 180 cases (75.4%) that were negative on U/S were managed conservatively. Out of these 180 cases, 13 patients with negative findings on imaging studies were later operated due to clinical decision and/or CT examination. Acute appendicitis was proven in 10 out of the 13 cases. Conclusion Focused ultrasound has high sensitivity in acute appendicitis for the assessment of clinically equivocal cases of pediatrics population. It can be used as an initial screening modality especially in pediatric population, thus reducing additional cost and radiation risk associated with CT scans and also reducing rate of negative surgery.

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Early Marriages leads to low self-esteem of young girls

Sadaf Ahmed, Amna khan, Shamoon Noushad, Nighat Shah, Samina Saleem & Shershah Syed
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre.
University of Karachi, Physiology
Aga Khan University
Patel Hospital Karachi

ABSTRACT

Objective The focus of this study is to be acquainted with the level of trust and reliance regarding reproductive health concerns among early married females. Introduction Many females around the globe are subjected to early marriage with immature minds and bodies, and they are forced to shoulder heavy duties, early pregnancies, harsh family behaviors, family disputes, behavioral problems and understanding problems. Early pregnancies and other health problems have a great impact on their self-esteem, confidence level and their trust on elders to share their problems. When females are married at early age, they are not only deprived of their education but they are also not aware of the health consequences and their solutions. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Karachi and data was collected through detailed interview among100 subjects (married and unmarried females). Results 41.98% of the unmarried girls relied on lady doctors for their reproductive health problems whereas 37.50% of married girls approached mothers and few talked to lady doctors while most of them were not sharing theirs obstacles with anyone. Conclusion It is concluded that females in their teens before marriage had normal self-esteem and courage to share their problems, on the other hand early marriages were found to cause a decline in their levels of self-esteem due to domestic pressures, less social buck up, fears of in laws and husbands.

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volume 3 issue 1