INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH
Volume 5 Issue 3 September 2017
Need to validate Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VASA) integrated tool for developing countries to assign biological and social reasoning of child mortalities.
Siddiqui MB1,2,3, Ng. CW4 & Low WY5
1Senior Lecturer, Department of Community Health Sciences,
Hamdard University, Karachi Pakistan.
2Director, Child Health Registry of Pakistan (CHRoP).
3Head of “Centre of Maternal and Child Health Research” (CoMCHR) at Advanced Educational Institute of Research Centre (AEIRC).
4Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
5Health Research Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya.
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Over the time since 1990, as the world strive for reducing child mortality1, there has been a clustering of child mortality estimates in developing countries2. The most distinguished clusters have been found in countries belonging to Sub-Saharan African and South Asian regions3,4, especially in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo and China2,3. Most of the developing countries, in comparison to developed ones, lack comprehensive vital registration system (VRS) 5,6. This system gathers data mostly on births and deaths of the population. The information extracted from such data facilitate and supports the health managers and planners during planning and allocation of scarce resources to the population.
Nutrition & Dietetics Curriculum for BS Study Program – Assessment and Evaluation
Iftikhar Alam,1,2 Attaullah Jan2, Shamoon Noushad3 & Zahoor-ul-Haq4
- Clinical Nutrition, Department of Community Health Sciences,
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
- Department of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, Bacha Khan University Charsadda,
Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 25000 (www.bkuc.edu.pk)
- Advance Educational Institute and Research Center (AERIC), Karachi, Pakistan
- Department of Education, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Charsadda,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 25000
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the curriculum for BS degree program in Human Nutrition & Dietetics in Pakistan. For this purpose, a working group comprising of experts in the field from NEAT (a Pakistan based registered organization: www.neat.org.pk ) was assigned the responsibility to evaluate the curriculum. As suggested by the working group, a modified Delphi technique was used and a group of expert panelists (n=46) was identified. Three main ‘areas of enquiry’ ‘(AE)’ were proposed, where the responses from the panels were requested: AE(1) evaluated the curriculum against a set of 15 characteristics reported in the literature; AE(2) evaluated the curriculum against 32-item ‘knowledge areas’ based on findings of a recent investigation. AE(3): scored the course contents of individual courses against a ‘perceived standards’ in light of a 14-item Battery. For AE(1) and (2) and (3), the panelists responded, respectively, on scoring scale (0 – 4) and ticked any one from 1 -3. The data were analyzed for mean and median scores for each individual item. Findings of AE(1) suggest that majority of the panelists agreed that the curriculum ‘adequately’/’excellently’ highlighted the fifteen criteria set-forth. Findings of AE(2) suggest 8 out of 32 ‘knowledge areas’ being ‘poorly’ reflected in the curriculum. Findings of AE(3) suggest majority (28/43: 65%) of courses fulfill the perceived standards except 2 courses (“Nutrition through Life Cycle”; and “Research Methods in Nutrition”) fulfilling <50% of the required standards. In all, the findings are of suggestive that the curriculum is ‘good’ except certain shortfalls. It was recommended that the deficiencies may be addressed in the coming revision.
Asymptomatic Urinary tract infection among diabetic patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital of Karachi
Yahya Aziz1, Krishan Lal1, Urwah Inam1 & Warda Musharraf1
1 Department of Medicine, Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective To determine frequency of urinary tract infection among asymptomatic diabetics, the etiological agents, antibiotic sensitivity and the pattern of antibiotic resistance to that organism. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted at Taj Medical Complex, Hamdard University Hospital, and Karachi. A total of 395 patients with Diabetes Mellitus were enrolled in our study. All data were transformed in a structured Performa. All lab analysis plus Urine C/S were done with written consent from the patients. Data was maintained and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Result Among the 395 included patients, 44 % (174) were females and 56 % (221) were males. 362 were taking oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), 9 were under insulin and 24 were taking both insulin and OHA. The mean HbA1c was 8.08 ± 1.29. Out of 395 samples of urine C/S of asymptomatic diabetic patients, 242 samples showed growth of organisms more than 105 CFU (colony forming units). The most common organism in 160 (66.11%) cases was E.coli. The other organisms isolated were klebsiella in 37 (15.28%) cases, staph aureus in 30 (12.4%), proteus in 7 (2.3%), enterococcus in 8 (3.3%) case. UTI was found more common in those patients who were taking oral hypoglycemic agents as compared to those who were taking insulin. E-coli- was sensitive to ciprofloxacin in 88.75%, ceftriaxone in 67.9% and imipenum in 100%. Klebsiella was 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. It was also 100% sensitive to imipenum. Staph aureus was sensitive to ciprofloxacin in 70%cases and 77% sensitive to ampicillin. E.coli was resistant to ampicillin, cefixime and gentamycin. Klebsiella was resistant to ceftriaxone and pimpedic acid. Staph aureus was resistant to co-trimoxazole. Proteus was resistant to imipenum in 100% cases and enterococci were resistant to amikacin in 100% cases. Conclusion The study concluded that the prevalence of UTI is higher in females as compared to males in asymptomatic diabetic patients. E.coli was the foremost etiological agent of UTI. It was also observed that the diseases incidence increases with increasing age and vice versa. Because of the frequency and severity of UTI in diabetes, prompt diagnosis and early treatment is compulsory to prevent consequent complications.
Non-residential Pakistani Students in Jeopardy: From Social Integration to Suicidal Attitude
Syeda N. Mahmood & Nazia Bashir
Center for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab.
Corresponding Author: email@example.com.
The study aimed at examining if social integration was associated with suicidal attitude among non-residential university students and also if there exists any group difference on the basis of private and public nature of the residence. Using purposive sampling technique 408 participants (202 girls and 206 boys) with mean age of 22 years were selected from hostels of government and private universities of Lahore. Social Network Index and Attitude towards Suicide were used to measure social integration and suicidal attitude, respectively. The findings revealed a significant negative correlation between social integration and suicidal attitude and group difference on the basis of nature of residence was also found. Non-residential students of government provided residence scored higher on both variables. The study suggests numerous avenues for further research.
Surgical Evacuation Extradural Hematoma under Local Anesthesia
Peer Asad Aziz Qureshi1*, Riaz. A. Raja2, Syed KhizrNaim3, Sanaullah pathan4, Shahzor Hassan5 & G.Murtaza Jamali6
Registrar Neurosurgery Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Extradural hematoma as a result of traumatic injury is a serious neurological emergency that required immediate intervention. The standard protocol is to identify the condition at earliest and provide quick surgical evacuation of the hematoma. The situation tends to be fatally deteriorating and marks a high mortality rate and worse health outcomes. We have presented a case of extradural hematoma in this study where the surgery had a delay due to the unavailability of general anesthesia. However, the falling Glasgow Coma Scale scores encouraged the surgeons to induce the surgical procedure with the employment of local anesthesia. The intervention turned out to be successful and produced the possibility of using local anesthesia as an alternative in case of critical emergency situations in order to save a life.
Comparative Analysis of Health Care System: Pakistan versus Japan
Sobia Idrees1, Shahida Abbasi2, Wais Mohammad Qarani3
- College of Nursing, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (PIMS),
- College of Nursing, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan,
- Division of Nursing Services, French Medical Institute for Mothers and
Children, Kabul, Afghanistan
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One of the important responsibilities of the health care system is to meet the health needs of the population mainly through health promotion and disease prevention initiatives. This objective can be achieved through an equitable resource distribution/allocation. This paper comprises of comparative analysis of health care system of two countries i.e., Pakistan and Japan in relation to the WHO recommended guidelines on Health care system. The analysis consists of organizational environment, health care delivery model, health information management system, health indicators, financing, and workforce of both the countries. This analysis suggests some strategies to overcome the shortcomings for both the countries.
Frequency of low back pain among nurses working in Jinnah hospital Lahore
Hammad Rasheed1, Junaid Rashid2 and Rana Saqib Javeed3
- Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore.
- Postgraduate Medical Institute/Lahore General Hospital
- Center of mentally and physically affected Special Students Lahore.
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background Nursing is a healthcare profession that is concerned with maintaining and promoting the health of the patients. Because of their work environment and workload nurse are at the very high risk of many occupational health problems. Among all these; musculoskeletal problems are most common especially the low back pain. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A sample size of 92 nurses was calculated and questionnaires were distributed among them and information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, job history, frequency, severity and pattern of low back pain. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 for windows and Microsoft Excel 2013. Descriptive statistics i.e., percentage, mean were used to interpret the data. Chi-square and P-value were used to find associations between dependent and independent variables. Results The frequency of low back pain among nurses was 65.1%. 12 months frequency was 57.8% and 7 days frequency was 32.5% with majority of nurses describing pain of Moderate intensity. The frequency of low back pain was high in nurses more than 30 years old, married, overweight/obese and those with more than 15 years of work experience. Conclusions About 65% of nurses working in Jinnah Hospital Lahore were suffering from low back pain which indicates high prevalence and is in line with prevalence of low back pain in the developed countries. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain the Body Mass Index in the normal ranges and also maintain proper body mechanics and posture and use assistive devices in lifting the patients.