INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH
Volume 4 Issue 2 June 2016
Social Autopsy is a dire need for investigating child mortality in Pakistan
Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui 1&2, Chiu Wan Ng 3, Wah Yun Low 4
1“Centre of Maternal and Child Health Research” (CoMCHR), AEIRC
2APPNA Institute of Public Health, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi Pakistan.
3 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
4 Health Research Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya.
Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
The world has been unable to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing child mortality by 2015. Since 1990, there is an established disparity of under-5 mortality rates among countries across the globe. This disparity is due to high burden of child deaths in several of the low income countries. These high burden countries includes India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRoC) (UNICEF-Report-2015). Currently, these four countries carry almost 45% of the global burden of child deaths. If these high burden countries continues to shows such trends of child mortality, then in the next 15 years or so, they will be carrying almost half of the global burden of child mortality (UNIGCME-2015).
Interplay between Cholesterol, SREBPs, MicroRNA-33 in Dyslipidemia
Abdul Hafeez Kandhro
Abdul Hafeez Kandhro, Healthcare Molecular & Diagnostic Laboratory, Hyderabad, Pakistan,
Email of corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dyslipidemia is characterized by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level that contributes to the development of insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat and cholesterol, genetics and other risk factors are responsible for producing variations in the lipids. The cholesterol plays a major function in the body, cholesterol homeostasis mechanism is regulated by the sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and firstly introduced by Brown and Goldstein. The SREBP transcription factors act coordinately with their intronic microRNAs (miRNA-33a / miRNA-33b) to regulate both fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Recently, multiple studies described microRNA-33a and SREBP2 cooperation for cholesterogenic transcription to improve intracellular cholesterol levels; suggesting that therapeutic approach of miR-33 targeting antisense would imperative for reverse cholesterol transport from atherogenic macrophages, as a result reduce atherosclerosis.
Asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in NIDDM; evaluation and association with glycemic control.
Muhammad Kashif1, Ali Yasir2, Amber Hakim1, Abdur Rasheed1&3.
1. Tabba Heart Institute Karachi, Pakistan
2. Getz Pharma (Pvt) Limited.
3. Department of Biostatistics, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
DM is an established risk factor for congestive cardiac failure, in which the diastolic function is impaired. The majority of these patients may be asymptomatic without signs of overt heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine asymptomatic Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfuction (LVDD) in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in association with glycemic control and to assess the risk factors for the development of diastolic dysfunction. This cross sectional study was conducted at the Tabba Heart Institute, Karachi from Dec, 2011 to Nov 2012, 101 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes without evidence of cardio-respiratory illness were enrolled. LVDD was evaluated by Doppler echocardiography, which included the valsalva manoeuvre. A total of 101 patients, LVDD was found in 67 subjects (66.34%) of whom 52 (51.48%) had impaired relaxation and 15 (14.85%) had a pseudonormal pattern of ventricular filling. The potential risk factors for the development of LVDD in type 2 diabetics were (a) age ≥45 years was associated with an almost three times higher risk for LVDD, (b) females had almost two times a higher risk of LVDD as compared with men, and (c) Diabetic patients of more than two years’ duration had a two times higher risk of LVDD. The study results also indicate that LVDD was significantly associated with increased age, longer duration of Diabetes and glycemic control (glycated HbA1c levels) and LVDD is found in diabetic patients before the onset of clinically detectable disease. The high prevalence of LVDD suggests that screening for LVDD should include procedures such as the valsalva manoeuvre.
Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia: Role of Angioembolization and factor VII in recurrent bleeding from ulcerated duodenum
Ali Abbas1, Raza Sayani2, Syed Muhammad Mustahsan1 & Anwar Saeed2
1Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre
2Department of Radiology, Agha Khan University Hospital
Email of corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare, genetically inherited, functional disorder of platelets. The pathology is deficient or dysfunctional platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) complex resulting in bleeding diathesis. Case Report: Here in, we report the effectivity of angioembolization with factor VII in a patient with Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT), who presented with recurrent bleeding from duodenal ulcer. Conclusion: Angioembolization with added infusion of factor VII, can be considered an equally effective alternate to platelet transfusion in patients of GT, who present with recurrent bleeding.
A comparative study of caffeinated beverages; tea and energy drink consumption on attention span of healthy male and female subjects
Kiran Zafar1, Arfa Naeem1 and Faizan Mirza1,2
1Psycho-physiology research lab, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi.
2 Psycho-physiology Research Division, AEIRC
Email of corresponding author: email@example.com
Tea is the most widely consumed beverage after water around the globe with consumer-base of both young and old, while energy drinks are popular primarily among young adults. Among the different varieties available black tea is the most commonly used and contains L-Theanine, theobromine, theophylline and the highest amount of caffeine. Energy drinks on the other hand contain taurine, herbs, B vitamins and stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine. The purpose of the study conducted was to evaluate the effect of regular tea and energy drinks on attention. A survey was conducted and subjects were given a task that was designed to test the above mentioned parameter and time taken to solve each part of the task was accurately noted. Results of the energy drink group and the tea group were compared to the control group. Gender based differences were also analyzed. Our results lead us to conclude that the most widely taken beverages enhance attention in both genders, with women outperforming men.
A cross sectional study; age related traumatic injuries in Karachi.
Aisha Asad, Parisa Sanawar, Zurrya Fasih & Kulsoom Qutb.
Jinnah Sindh Medical University.
Email of corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Traumatic injury is one of the major health problems in our city due to its frequency, prevalence, costs and treatment. Traumatic injuries of sudden onset and severity may require immediate resuscitation and interventions. Serious traumatic injuries have the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. The aim of this paper is to review the frequency and types of injuries in different age groups. This paper provides a quick method to receive a primary understanding of common causes of traumatic injuries. To determine incidence, pattern and implication of injuries in different age groups. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 150 patients, within a period of 6 months (October 2014 – March 2015). It was taken through non probability purposive sampling, in orthopaedic surgery department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. An informed verbal consent was taken and pilot study was conducted to assess the validity of questionnaire. A structured questionnaire was filled; data was analysed by SPSS version 16. The study conducted on 150 people, contained 103 males (68.7%) and 47 females (31.3%). Injuries were common in middle age group (40 to 60 years). Most traumas occurred on road (61.3%). Majority of people were travelling at time of injury (54.7%). Major cause of injury was found to be transport accidents (48.7%). All the victims were not provided with first aid care in transportation. Severity at emergency room of patients was mainly moderate (52.7%). Majority of young adults suffered with hip dislocation and femur fracture (10.0%) while head injury was prevalent among (6.0%) of people. Incidence of traumatic injuries and accidents is increasing day by day. The study proved that Road traffic accident is the major cause of injury in traumatic patients. Ambulances and other emergency medical services need to upgrade their facilities during transportation. Strict laws should be made to wear seat belts/ helmets during travelling. Appropriate medical care facilities (including trauma centres) need to be established at district level, sub-divisional level to provide good and quality care to trauma patients.
Chemical stress as a consequence of prolong drug use,
a study on chronic health condition.
Dur-e-shahwar1, Shamoon Noushad2, Kisa Fatima2 & Sadaf Ahmed1,2
1Psycho-physiology research lab, Physiology Dept, University of Karachi.
2Advance Educational Institute & Research Center
Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
Background: Chemical stress is an indication of increase or a lesser amount of chemicals that body has exposed both internal or external environment provided to singe cell such as pollution, smoking, ingested food additives, pesticides, excessive consumption of sugar and alcohol, too many cups of coffee and even passive smoking cause chemical stress. This prolong exposure to any affluence can cause chemical stress that interferes with body’s natural balance. Methodology: A cross sectional survey based study was conducted at a local hospital including 3 groups of patients, Group I was using only anti diabetic drugs, Group II was chronic user of cardiac medications while Group III was using both. Demographic data, medical history and drug use duration and dosage were investigated as well as intensity of Chemical stress was calculated by Sadaf stress scale. The patients with severe and psychological and mental illness or any other chronic illness or patients who were failed to provide reliable information were excluded from study. Results: The result showed that there is a stressful built-up of chemicals as a result of altered metabolism due to excess drugs use in these patients. However moderate stress is majorly reported in Group III that indicates increased number of prescribed medications and their correlation with intensity of chemical stress. However, none of the patient scored severe stress which is again an indication that there is a progressive psychophysiological deteriorating state rather than fully damaged that can be improved.