INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH
Volume 2 Issue 2 December 2014
HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH AND DIMENSIONS FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE
Sadaf Ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
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Close incorporation through varied areas of health research and health-care tasks enables researchers, clinicians and scientists to identify how evolving scientific visions can be applied to patient care while carefully assessing new methodologies to preventing, identifying and handling disease through clinical research. A health professional know more about the human body today than we did yesterday, and tomorrow we’ll know even more—a lot more. In the last three decades, advances in human, molecular and genetic areas have sparked a research revolution that reveals ever more detailed and precise information about how human bodies work. Every day brings new discoveries, many of which may hold the potential to improve human health in meaningful ways but the pace at which those discoveries lead to improved health has been disappointingly sluggish. It cannot be denied that new drugs, protocols and therapies do reach patients, and when they do, they often make a tremendous transformation. However, in comparison to the number of research projects conducted, papers published, and trials run, it is clear that new health care advances have lagged behind the vast amounts of data generated by the explosion in biomedical discovery that is unable to facilitate a common man. Pakistan is playing an emerging role among academic medical societies working to change that. On multiple fronts, and in collaboration with world, within the country and nationwide, the researchers and clinicians are exploring ways to increase the haste and efficiency with which research discoveries are rendered into improvements in patient care. Same is the case of drug development, the failure rate is much more with enormous resources and finances expenditure that at the end don’t work for any healthcare concerns.
ROLE OF STRESS IN PROGRESSION OF MIGRAINE
Shamoon Noushad1&2, Sadaf Ahmed 1&3, Huma Khalid1 , Rida Nasir1 , Ikram Tunio4 & Shaikh Tahir1
- Health Science Research Division- AEIRC
- Dow University of Health Sciences
- University of Karachi
- Chandka Medical College
Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The mental and physiological stresses can be an important trigger of migraines & headaches. These strains act to enhance the progression of migraine that could be psychological, physiological stress, Environmental stress or Chemical stress. The population data of 185 people have taken which include the ages from 14-60 years. The data were analyzed by ICHD-II criteria .The duration of the research was from-February 2012 to December 2012.The targeted population were of both genders age ranges 18-25 years. The data have collected in two parts, before examination and during examination. The obtain result shows that the frequency of migraine is higher in women as compare to men. Mostly people were suffering from mild psychological stress that might be periodical stress as approximately 50% people were students who were under examination stress as the exams were about to held. Nutritional stress is another major factor as the high temperature causes dehydration resulted in vasoconstriction resulted in sensation of pain. Environmental stress was an additional cause for students. Physiological stress was also noticed as the main cause that bring about the initiation of migraines period whether it could also leads towards the Menstrual migraine that has a sign of vomiting or nausea. Individual concerns with healthy life patterns and stress free conditions could help a person to reduce or prevent the migraine.
IMPACT OF UNTREATED HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE ON RENAL FUNCTION TESTS AT INITIAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTENSION
Sadiqa Syed1, Ziaul Islam2 & Masood A Qureshi3
- Princes Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University
- Bahria University Medical & Dental College
- Dow University of Health Sciences
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Background: Pakistani population is at higher risk of developing hypertensive complications at a younger age, resulting from undiagnosed and untreated hypertension (HTN). High cost of medical care is a barrier to early detection and assessment of end organ damage as well as physicians are disinclined to adopt more aggressive therapeutic management to improve blood pressure control. A cross sectional study was planned to determine the effect of high blood pressure on renal function tests in a random population aged 25-50 year, at initial diagnosis of hypertension. Methods: The study was conducted on total 276 subjects; 201selected from five general practitioners clinics in Karachi and were classified into pre hypertensive, and hypertensive stages I and II on the basis of 7th JNC report. Two BP readings were taken half an hour apart. A blood sample was drawn for measurement of serum urea, creatinine and a dipstick test was done to check protein in urine. The results were compared with 75 control, normotensive subjects. The percentage, mean and Standard deviation were computed. ANOVA was performed to compare four study groups and LSD test was applied to compare pair-wise group. Pearson’s correlation was applied to find out association of renal function with stages of hypertension. Results: The mean urea and creatinine levels were on higher normal side in HTN stages-I and II (39.91±8.51 and 1.72±0.54 in stage-I and 44.51±9.93 and 1.91±0.88 in stage-II respectively). The frequency of proteinuria was also more in these groups, indicating declining renal function in these patients as compared to control and prehypertension groups. Conclusion: Subjects diagnosed with stage I and II HTN showed evidence of subclinical renal damage, along with the presence of proteinuria at the time of diagnosis.
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INADAPTABLE RISK FACTORS & SOCIAL STATUS ON DIABETIC FOOT ULCER
Department of Physiology, University of Karachi
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Diabetic Foot Ulcer subjects (DFUS) were clinically examined in the urban areas of Karachi. Neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformity, improperly fitted shoes can make a diabetic person at risk of foot ulcer. In the present study, prevalence, role of inadaptable risk factors (age, gender, height) and socio-economic status were examined in DFUS and normal diabetic patients (NDP) taken as control. A total of randomly selected subjects N= 59; male=33, female=26 (DFUS: n=41; male=22, female=19; NDP: n=18; male=11, female=7). In this study prevalence of DFU was found in male gender as 54% of our patients were male and 46% were female. Mean ± S.E.M. of male DFUS height was 5.7 ± 0.353 ft while that of women was 5 ± 0.306 ft, this greater height in male makes them predominant for DFU. Mean ± S.E.M. of age for DFUS males: 58 ± 10.237 years, that is comparatively higher than control NDP males: 56.81 ± 10.235 years. Mean ± S.E.M. of age for DFUS females: 54 ± 11.18 years which is also significantly higher than control NDP females: 49.57 ± 9.727 years. The greater part of the investigated patients belonged to lower class (54% males & 74% of females).
SUPPRESSION AND TREATMENT OF HALOPERIDOL INDUCED EXTRA-PYRAMIDAL SIDE EFFECTS AND ANXIETY SYNDROME BY THE COADMINISTERATION OF RED RICE BRAN OIL IN RATS
Farah Naz & Erum Shireen.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi
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Antipsychotic medications may reduce or eliminate symptoms of psychosis. They are not a ‘cure’ for mental illnesses, but can be an effective part of treating mental disorders. Even though many of the antipsychotics such as haloperidol cannot cure mental illnesses, they are effective in eliminating or reducing psychotic symptoms. However, prolong administration of haloperidol may result in parkinsonian like effects and tardive dyskinesia. The objective of the present research was to determine the effects of long term co-administration of RRBO in diet on haloperidol induced anxiety and EPS. It was hypothesized that co-administration of RRBO by the free radicals scavenging property could alleviate parkinsonian like effects and tardive dyskinesia. The present results showed a reversal of haloperidol induced parkinsonian like effects and tardive dyskinesia in rats cotreated with RRBO.
BREAST SELF EXAMINATION; SIGNIFICANT TOOL IN EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER
Saima khan1&4, Sadaf Ahmed1&2, Nelofer Sultana3 & Shamoon Noushad1&4
- Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre (AEIRC)
- University Of Karachi
4, Dow University of Health Sciences
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This evidence based study is to provide the awareness of breast self examination; its outcomes and significance. There is a never matching increase noted in the incidences of breast cancer worldwide. Pakistani women are on top of the list in the region to develop this disease and it has also been observed that they diagnose to have higher grade disease in early age. Early detection followed by timely treatment is the best prognosis for long term survival. This a retrospective study in which the data was gathered through questionnaire for the selected variables. Out of 100 patients 49 were doing BSE while 51 were unaware of breast self-examination. Out of these 49% , 42% were doing BSE randomly,2% were doing monthly,3% were doing weekly while 2% were doing on daily bases, and 24 (49%) patients were found to have microscopically confirmed carcinoma and 12 (24%) were found to have negative microscopic exams remaining 13 (27%) patients who were doing BSE were not gone through microscopic exam. Breast self-examination is the simplest tool that can play an important role in the detection of breast cancer. There is need to encourage BSE practices among the women along with the development of awareness program to make it successful.
DETERMINANTS OF POPULATION GROWTH IN PAKISTAN
Shams ul Huda
Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery Karachi.
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Population growth is a major problem of developing countries, which adversely affect economic growth and development. Today world population is 7.2 billion almost double of 1960 population. Pakistan is the 6th populous country with population of 188.2 million. Population growth in Pakistan is 1.95 almost double of world population growth. Unplanned population growth results in severe shortage of resources, increase food insecurities and threaten health care system of Pakistan. Moreover, Infrastructures, roads, water and sanitation systems are deficient to meet the necessities of growing population. There are several factors which contribute in population growth including high fertility rate, inadequate family planning practices, and low income. Illiteracy, lack of political well, inefficient bureaucracy, cultural and religious back ground also has profound effect on population growth.
SEASONAL VARIATION AND RECENT STATUS OF TYPHOID FEVER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Samreen Soomro1, 2, Samina Baig1, Saima Naseem1 & Shaheen Sharafat1
- Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi.
- Dr. Panjwani center for molecular medicine and drug research, University of Karachi.
Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In many developing countries, typhoid fever is endemic. Early diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment on time. Typhi dot is important diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of typhoid fever. In the current study from February, 2012 to May 2014, samples from 19433 febrile cases referred to Dow Diagnostic Research and Reference lab were screened for serum IgM and IgG for Salmonella typhi by Typhi dot test. Results showed that about 12501 patients had both IgM and IgG antibodies against Salmonella typhi. Male patients were more commonly affected than female patients. Highest frequency of positive cases was seen during the month of October. Age group >15-44 was most likely affected among different age groups. This study suggested that still we are far behind in improving sanitation and elimination of such controllable disease. Therefore prompt measures should be taken to control the disease especially during hot season by vaccination, improved sanitation and education as well.
PRE-ECLAMPSIA-PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION; THREATS AND CONSEQUENCES
Iqra Zulfiqar1& 2, Naila Mushtaq2& 3, Sadaf Ahmed2&3, Shamoon Noushad2&3 & Saima Khan2& 4
- Baqai Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
- University of Karachi
- Aga Khan University & Hospital
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Pre-eclampsia is the elevated blood pressure and excess protein in the urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman who previously had normal blood pressure, a major cause of preterm birth and an early marker for future cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The objective of study is to identify the level of awareness regarding pre-eclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension or gestational hypertension) and its relation with increasing maternal and fetal mortality rate. The questionnaire based survey was conducted including both close & open ended questions and compared with the retrospective data among 160 respondents, in which our target was to investigate women of varying socioeconomic status & the duration of our research is almost 20 days. Statistically we found an overall poor awareness of pre-eclampsia with 26% of women surveyed having heard of it and remaining 74% were unknown to pre-eclampsia, 39% faced pre-eclampsia with its severe consequences and fetal mortality rate data showed 42% deaths stating pre-eclampsia as the major cause of it, in addition to that higher rate of maternal death i.e. 57% occurs due to pre-eclampsia subsiding other reasons as key reasons of maternal mortality. Hence it is concluded that Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy with unknown etiology so awareness level is too low to decrease its incident & this lack of awareness translates to worse health outcomes proving pre-eclampsia as a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and its lack of awareness increasing this risk day by day and making it a hidden threat to pregnancy.
MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF ORAL PRE-MALIGNANT LESIONS & ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN SALIVA-A BREAKTHROUGH IN PAKISTAN.
Iqbal A. Muhammad Khyani, Masood A. Qureshi, M. Umar Farooq & Talat Mirza
Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi
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Objective: To evaluate salivary detection of interleukin 6 & 8 and high risk HPV-16 & 18 are informative biomarkers of Oral Pre-malignant Lesion (PML) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) in our population. Duration: July 2011 to December 2012. Subjects and Methods: Total 105 cases were included. The subjects were divided in three groups ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’ having 35 participants each. Group ‘A’ comprised of patients having strong clinical evidence of oral PML. Group ‘B’ constitutes histologically proven OSCC and Group ‘C’ includes disease free subjects as controls. Relevant clinical history was recorded after informed consent on institutional approved performa. Saliva was collected as per standard drooling method’. Samples were stored at +4oC and later transferred to Dow Diagnostic, Research & Reference Laboratory to store it at -20oC before further process. Samples were subjected to centrifugation at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. Supernatant fluid phase was used in ELISA for detection and quantification of IL6 and IL8. . Cell pellets were used for identification of high risk HPV-16 & 18 by real-time PCR. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS version 16. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard reference. Results: In group ‘A’, IL6 was not detected in almost all the subjects except one case. IL8 was detected in 26/35 (74.3%) subjects and not detected in 09 (25.7%) cases. In group ‘B’, IL6 was detected in 13 (37.1%) cases and in 22 (62.9%) cases, it cannot be detected. IL8 was detected in 33 (94.3%) and it was not detected in 02 (5.7%) subjects. It is observed that IL8 is consistently found raised in group ‘A’ & ‘B’. In group ‘C’, IL6 was not detected in any of the subject while IL8 was detected in 10(28.6%) cases. Significant association was found for qualitative salivary detection of IL6 and IL8 between the groups (P= < 0.0001 and < 0.0001 respectively). Regarding quantitative salivary concentration of IL6 & IL8, no significant co-relation was found in salivary levels of IL6 between the groups while there was significant association of salivary IL8 levels between the groups (P= <0.0001). On post Hoc multiple comparison, significant co-relation was found in IL8 levels between oral PML group and controls (P=0.001) and OSCC group and controls (P= <0.0001). In group ‘A’, HPV-16 was detected in salivary samples of 3 (8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected. In group ‘B’, HPV-16 was detected in the salivary samples of 07 (20%) cases while HPV-18 was detected in 06 (17.1%) cases. Mixed HPV-16 and HPV-18 were found in 02 (5.7%) cases. In group ‘C’, HPV-16 was detected in 03(8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subjects. Significant relationship was observed between the groups for salivary HPV-18 detection (P= 0.002) while for detection of HPV-16, no significant association was found (P= 0.245). Conclusion: Salivary concentration of IL6 and IL8 in oral PML and oral cancer are useful biomarkers in our population. Detection of HPV infection for the causation of oral cancer cannot be fully established possibly due to small sample size. More over different genetic makeup, environmental and geographic differences, indulgence in peculiar risk factor habits and different sexual practices compared to west due to socio-cultural and religious restrictions could be the reason.
DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF MRI IN DIFFERENTIATING NON-MUSCLE INVASIVE FROM MUSCLE INVASIVE BLADDER CARCINOMA TAKING HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STAGING AS A STANDARD.
Syed Muhammad Faiq1,Khujasta Mehtab1,Nazish Naz2, Fatima Batool3,Kiran Nazi 3,Anwar Naqvi 1& Adeeb ul Hassan1
Sindh Institute of Urology & Transplantation
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To Determine Diagnostic accuracy Of MRI in differentiating non-muscle invasive from muscle invasive bladder carcinoma taking Histopathological staging as a standard. The data of 53 patients with bladder tumor who previously confirmed by cystoscopy were examined at 1.5 T, images were obtained and analyzed by radiologist without knowledge of the tumor stage. T2-weighted spin-echo or turbo-spin-echo, and dynamic Ti-weighted fast gradient-echo sequences were used. Histopathological grading served as standard of reference. Compared with the results submitted from the histopathology unit and using more detailed TNM classification, the sensitivity, specificity, and percent accuracy of MRI was 91%, 86%, 85% respectively. This data confirms the under-staging of the bladder tumor invasion done histopathologically while MR is a promising, non-invasive technique for the detection of bladder lesions with a high diagnostic performance.
INCIDENCES OF DEVELOPING EATING DISOREDERS DUE TO BINGE EATING
Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad, Syed Zain Azher & Shaikh Mohammad Tahir
Health Science Research Division-AEIRC
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Binge eating or chaotic eating refers to unhealthy eating patterns that are found in low incidences comparatively to verify and diagnosed eating disorders. Altered eating behaviors may lead to severe eating disorders like Binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa that could be life threaten if left undiagnosed The purpose of this study is to investigate unordered or binge eating attitudes among individuals with respect to their eating patterns. An observational study has been done in which a randomized data of 120 individuals have been selected within a group of 24 males and 96 females with the help of a questionnaire based survey on food habits, preference of type of food intake, tea consumption, munching habits, workplace or home eating and eating during working hours. R Results were analyzed on the basis of percentage values and SPSS 17.0 different associations between variables. out of 120 people 58.3%of the individuals including both genders did not have a feeling of fullness, 50.83 % of the total individuals eat during working hours and possess munching habit, 83% use to eat biscuits to munch .Unordered eating patterns also affect the frequency of bowel movements, 58.30% people have bowel movements once a time. Irregular eating and munching habits does not initiate a feeling of fullness in the beginning of a meal, due to binge eating people do get satisfied by the smell of food and did not take a proper meal to fulfill nourishment requirements. However, binge eating lead to increase appetite as the munching material including snacks digest quickly which cause more food intake and people did not get fully satisfied by the smell of food only and excessive tea intake is one of the contributing factors. Binge eating affects normal appetite, eating attitudes and Bowel movements which may further lead to severe eating disorders like Bulimia nervosa which should be clarified early instead left undiagnosed.