INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH
Volume 1 Issue 1 July 2013
SORTS AND SOURCES OF STRESS IN PAKISTAN; A COMPREHENSIVE OUTLOOK
Sadaf Ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
Objective: to evaluate Psycho-physiological cause and developing burden that account for stress with variability in terms of duration, intensity and healthy or unhealthy effects on physical and emotional well-being. Background: In Pakistan the condition of physiological and psychosocial health is becoming weaker with time due to occurrence of non peaceful and haphazard life resulted in constant stress. Method:. There are various ways of analyzing stress from observing symptoms, change in behaviors. These can be lead to body either towards strength, improved body reactions and better performance as psycho-physiological being. We have highlighted here the emerging stressors in Pakistan and their effects on body & mind. Result: The psycho-physiological conditions result of experiencing changes in homeostatic balance, these imbalances either lead to positive or negative impact on health status of well being and trigger three main pathways physiologically Conclusion: In this editorial the predictable indicators of stress response and there positive and negative influences are summarized with respect to emerging and existing stressors known to effect this set of population. Application: This is a theoretical evidenced based psychoanalysis will be leading towards designing an inventory specifically based on recent stressors acting on human body and types of induced stress.
SCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF KIENBOCK’S DISEASE IN COMPARISON TO PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY
Zaheer Chiragh, Muhammad Iftikhar Alam &. Shahab Fatmi
Kienbock’s disease is a rare pathology of uncertain etiology, resulting in osteo-necrosis of lunate bone. The authors present interesting images for comparison of both plain radiography and bone scan findings done in a young male laborer.
TEMPERATURE REGULATION OF CBC SAMPLES IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES OF KARACHI
Zoobia Zaheeruddin, Aisha Abdul Haq &. Humaira Aman
To determine how Labs are maintaining their Laboratory temperatures,To measure the temperature of different clinical laboratories & to check their controls,to compare temperature affects on Samples & Controls with normal values & with each others.In a cross-sectional study, fifteen clinical laboratories in Karachi are examined for observing the standard protocols for running a lab with particular reference to temperature regulation. A questionnaire to the effect is filled and data are statistically analyzed and the following results are obtained. In the 15 labs observed, the mean of complete blood counts performed daily was 1.93± 0.88. All 15 (100%) labs had a temperature reader. All 15 (100%) labs had an air-conditioner installed. Out of these 15, only 12 were found to be in working condition. Out of 15 laboratories 8 (53.3%) of them perform the sample immediately, 2 of the laboratories (13.3%) perform after half an hour, 3 (26.6) perform within 1 hour while 1 (6%) takes more than 1 hour to perform the sample.The finding of this survey showed that some of CBC parameters can be changed with the variation in temperature; therefore it is better to do the CBC test after blood taking as soon as possible. So, the commercial laboratories should be properly registered and their quality standardized.
DUAL INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES OF ADHATODA VASICA AGAINST CYCLOOXYGENASE AND LIPOXYGENASE
Sagheer Ahmed, Saima Gul, Humera Gul & Muhammad Hanif Bangash
Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases, particularly for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. However, the scientific rationale and mechanisms by which it functions in these diseases is not known. This study was designed to explore the inhibitory activity of Adhatoda vasica aqueous and butanolic fractions on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. For this purpose aqueous and butanolic fractions of Adhatoda vasica were screened for the presence of activities against arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites and their effectiveness was further evaluated by studying platelet aggregation induced by a AA, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet activating factor (PAF), and collagen. AA metabolism was studied by thin layer chromatography system while platelet aggregation was measured by dual channel Lumi aggregometer. Aqueous fraction of Adhatoda vasica but not of butanolic fraction inhibited the AA metabolites through COX pathway (TXB2) and LOX pathway (LP1 and 12-HETE). However, in platelet aggregation studies butanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica showed strong inhibition against AA, PAF and collagen induce aggregation but not against ADP. Aqueous fraction of Adhatoda vasica was active against none of the four aggregating agents. Adhatoda vasica possesses components which can inhibit AA metabolism and platelet aggregation. This may be one of the underlying mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory effects.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RADIOGRAPHER AWARENESS IN PNEUMOTHORAX DETECTION
Saima Khan, Sadaf Ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
The purpose of the study is to aware and educated a radiographer of certain pathological conditions seen on chest x-ray specifically we are dealing with types and severity of pneumothorax and the quality of information a radiographer communicate to his primary team for evaluation. Radiographer can identify or detect pneumothorax by taking x-rays in three positions i-e upright, supine or decubitis with complete awareness of diverse conditions of pneumothorax. For suitable imaging radiographer should know about position, safety of the patient and the techniques of Breath holding during exposure. Whereas ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) should be kept standard. In our study mostly cases were of tension pneumothorax in which immediate decompression of thorax is mandatory and it requires instant action as on x-ray film as lung marking diminishes in this condition. According to radiological policy for panic conditions the chest x- rays were observed through PACS after every two hours. We evaluated the role of radiographer in observing pneumothorax and how it is his/her utmost responsibility to inform their primary team or the concerned radiologist urgently. We observed 36 panic pneumothorax out of 2865 portable chest x-rays of admitted patients from May 2012 till November 2012. Out of these 36 cases radiographers correctly identified 28 cases while 6 were missed when compared with radiologists detection.We concluded that 77% of radiographers are aware of panic conditions detected on chest x-ray but we find it very necessary to aware and educate radiographers more particularly to detect pneumothorax and related pathologies on chest x-rays in order to improve proper patient care in health care system and maintain required standards.
INCREASING OBESITY AND ITS RISK FACTORS
Maria Altaf & Kisa Fatima
Obesity has been a target tool for research for its prevention and treatment because of its association with various metabolic dysfunctions. Increased adipose tissue distribution leads to progressive increase in hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevalence. It was a prospective study conducted at Fatima Jinnah Dental College and Dow Institute of Medical Technology (DUHS) Karachi, from February 2012 to January 2013Seventy five subjects (54 girls and 21 boys) were randomly selected of ages 18-25 years.BMI, waist hip ratio and neck circumference was observed to determine obesity. Questionnaires were administered to ascertain biographical data, lifestyles behaviors including dietary habits and diet plan (healthy food/junk food), binge eating, family history for obesity, habits of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, patterns of daily physical activity. According to the anthropometric measurements out of seventy five individuals 20% were underweight, 34.7% were normal, 21% overweight, 17% obese and 6.7% were morbidly obese. 32% of people are mostly dependant on junk food, 45.2 % people are occasionally dependant on junk food and only 22.7% people rely on homemade food, 36% individuals were physically active and 64% people were leading sedentary life style lack of time due to their academic schedule or lack of interest. In this context, two main factors appear to participate in body-weight maintenance: dietary habits and physical activity. Effective prevention and management of obesity requires an integrated approach, with intervention across different segments of the population through adequate information and public awareness programs.
HUMAN SKIN MODEL SERVING IN ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY
Hina Shafi , Iqra Ashqeen , Madiha Kanwal & Zia Mohy Uddin
Cardiac activities are one of the vital signs of life. To monitor these activities there are several methods including electrocardiography (ECG), photo plysthesmography, electrical impedance plythesmography. The purpose of the paper is to design external electrodes placed on the uppermost skin layer called stratum corneum which are capable of stimulating human anterior tibial artery without damaging it. This artery is present along the length of human tibia bone or shin bone .The designed electrodes are diminutive enough to attach with any easily wearable device. These electrodes when supplied with potential stimulate the artery helping in the procedure of electrical impedance plethysmography, this method is simple and low-cost.On the other hand, Electrical Impedance Plethysmography appears to be the most practical solution as compared to the above mentioned techniques of monitoring cardiovascular activities By varying electrode size and the distance between the electrodes we can skillfully judge the point where the electric field reaches the artery. The simulation of this model is done by Comsol Multiphysics.
BIO-ELECTRICAL IMPEDENCE PLETHYSMOGRAPHY-DESIGNING AN EFFICIENT NON-INVASIVE ELECTRODE FOR CARDIAC RATE ANALYSIS
Daniya Umer, Ghanwa Ellahi, Warda Ellahi, Saba Ayub &. Zia Mohy Ud Din
Cardiac rate analysis is constituted as one of the most essential parts of physiological patient monitoring. In this research paper, it has been investigated that electrical impedance plethysmography is the most conducive technique for this purpose. It is perceptible that the artery closest to the epidermis will generate a precise reading and for that purpose, we have designed an efficient non-invasive model based on a tetra-electrode setup placed in contact with the stratum corneum of the skin. By varying electrode size and the distance between the electrodes we can efficiently judge the point where the electric field reaches the artery. The simulation of this model is carried out by Comsol Multiphysics.
EARLY CHILDHOOD MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS INTAKE – MATERNAL PERCEPTIONS & PRACTICES
Asma Shehzad Makhani, Ayesha Zahid Khan & Ghazala Rafique
The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in young children has a profound effect on their immune system, growth and mental development. However, many micronutrients deficiencies in children such as calcium can be prevented. This research has explored the perceptions and practices of mothers, residing in Karachi, regarding milk and milk products (MAMPs) intake in children of age 2-5 years, in order to find out the amount of MAMPs in their diet and the factors affecting such intake. This is a qualitative exploratory study. Semi structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Eighteen mothers whose children’s age were 2-5 years old were purposively recruited from three daycare centers of three different socioeconomic status areas of Karachi. The MAMPs intake of children in three different socioeconomic areas of Karachi was in accordance with 2006’s, American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for requirements, i.e. 2 cups per day of Milk/Dairy for 2-4 years old children. However, the type of MAMPs and children’s preferences differs considerably. The most preferred MAMPs among children of age were yogurt and plain milk. The preferences for MAMPs in children were mainly determined by their peers, mother’s ethnicity and media advertisements. Most of the mothers did not prefer giving MAMPs in several common childhood illnesses due to prevailing misconceptions. It was also explored that maternal ethnicity plays considerable role in selecting and combining various food items mainly fish with MAMPs. Recognizing the MAMPs intake of children and their mother’s perceptions and practices can help researchers to better understand children’s preferences for different MAMPs and the factors influencing their intake. Food policies and recommendations related to MAMPs in children can be evaluated for their relevance to children’s ecological determinants to address the issues related to growth and development in early ages.
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE & L-THEANINE CONSUMPTION ON SUBJECTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR SIGNS AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES.
Hira Zameer., Mehrunisa Iqbal., Lubna Anwer., Sadaf Ahmed & Samia Mushtaq
Non-alcoholic beverages comprise of Caffeine and L-theanine as core ingredients. Caffeine is attributed to augment cardiovascular and neurophysiological responses by enhancing the neurotransmission of catecholamines after binding with adenosine receptors antagonistically. L-theanine, as a constituent of green tea is helpful in lowering blood pressure by antagonizing the effects of excitatory neurotransmitters after subsequent release of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. 87 healthy females with age 18-19 years, participated in the study were divided into three different groups. Group A was subjected to consume cold beverage (soft drink). Participants of group B & C were allowed to take hot beverages in the form of tea and green tea respectively. Cardiovascular parameters and neurophysiological responses were assessed before and after 45 minutes of beverages intake.Statistical analysis revealed a significant improvement in the reaction time of tea and in concentration test of both tea and green tea consumers. In addition, a less significant increase in HR with tremendous decrease in PR was observed among green tea consumers. Furthermore, significant reduction in both systolic & diastolic blood pressure was evident with green tea consumers.Experimental results are unveiling effectiveness of L-theanine over caffeine in lowering BP, HR & PR after antagonizing the release of excitatory neurotransmitter along with the opening of ligand gated chloride channels that leads to hyperpolarization. Moreover, a favorable combination of caffeine & L-theanine is responsible for enhancing cognitive performances, alertness and well being.
COMMUNITY AWARENESS ON CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
(PROCESS EVALUATION OF HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM)
This document presents data from qualitative research using a series of focus groups which were conducted for the community from 15th April to 30th April 2007. The focus groups were conducted to ascertain the awareness of degree of Coronary Heart Disease (CVD); the quality of the training program, and if behavior has changed as a result of the awareness program, in Northern areas of Pakistan. There were nine focus groups conducted and each group consisted of 6 to 8 participants.All participants in general, reported that they were happy with the awareness program but mentioned that some of the material for health education was not culturally appropriate. Further, all participants were talked about their health behavior and beliefs.The findings suggest that there is a need to focus more on the processes of planning to develop awareness of coronary heart disease (CHD), organize more innovative health education and interventions that aim to empower community to become more informed and active consumers of health care.
CEREBRAL PALSY IN RELATION TO MATERNAL HEALTH
Kisa Fatima 1& Maria Altaf 2
Cerebral palsy (CP) is neurological disorder which effect motor and sensory neurons the effected individual may suffer ophthalmic problems, impaired speech, movements and posture mental and physical abnormalities as well. The study design was observational prospective, done on the population consists of 65 mothers having their child with CP, and children with other physical and mental disabilities were completely excluded. The data was collected at Dow Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (IPM&R), DUHS.Prenatal causes (placenta previa, hypertension, diabetes, and seizures) accounted for majority of CP conditions. 21.5% mothers were found with gestational diabetes, 56.9% with hypertension, 16.9% with seizures and 20.0% with placenta previa.As it is well observed that Women with pregnancy induced diabetes (gestational diabetes) have a greater chance of having a baby with birth defects including CP. Gestational diabetes puts the fetus at greater risk of CP while women with hypertension are also most likely to have a child with CP.
ROLE OF FATHERS IN EARLY YEARS OF CHILD’S LIFE
Mona Minhaz Ali Jindani & Sanober Nadeem
The study focus on investigating the perceptions and practices of fathers and its impact on children’s development. It attempts to establish the effect of father’s involvement in children life. Very few studies to date could be found on this subject area. In recent days, people are more learned and want to educate their selves on how they should deal their children and at the same time best practices for fathers should also be established by researches and studies. This study was done to involvement of fathers in child care as their involvement effects socio economic development of a child. Fathers are usually preoccupied in earning bread for the family however they should play their role in child carePurposive sampling was done for the purpose of this search after which focused group discussion (FGD) were conducted on 5 different locations to address all the socio economical classes of fathers. Father of a given sample were accumulated at a single place for the purpose of the research study and interviews/discussion were conducted in presence of a note taker and a principal investigator, prior consent was taken from all the fathers before the focused group discussion. According to the study it has been proved that fathers involvement had a great influence on children development. Children were good at schools and interaction with other where father’s involvement was high. Usually, fathers are ideal for child but studies shows that paternal involvement has been low in comparison to maternal but this perception is changingwith time. The research identified that fathers are usually busy in earning bread for their family due to which they have fairly less stake in the child development however there is an increasing trend in fathers who understands the importance of their role in child care and child development and also they try to give maximum contribution in the upbringing of their children.