INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH
Volume 1 Issue 2 December 2013
NOVEL STRESS EVALUATING TOOL; SADAF STRESS SCALE (SSS), TESTED SO FAR ON PAKISTANI POPULATION
Shamoon Noushad & Sadaf Ahmed
A tool has been developed for evaluation of stress by observing major signs & symptoms, and classification of these symptoms in seven different classes. The tool comprised of 114 items that differentiates physical, mental, traumatic, psychosocial, nutritional, emotional & chemical stress. It will help the researchers with a tool for evaluation of cause as it is first of its kind & will help the health professionals for assessment of stressed. Preliminary data was collected from Pakistan and analyses showed that the tool has both high reliability and validity. The Cronbach reliability test was carried out and the α value obtained was between 0.954-0.916. In this study the Spearman-Brown Coefficient analysis has been used to obtain the significant level of related coefficients (0.900-0.884). The findings of this study support the use of SSS as an evaluation tool.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-PLATELET ACTIVITIES OF AVENA SATIVA ARE MEDIATED THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYCLOOXYGENASE AND LIPOXYGENASE ENZYMES
Sagheer Ahmed, Saima Gul, Humera Gul & Muhammad Hanif Bangash
Avena sativa (AS) is a well-known food crop and an important medicinal plant. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases, particularly for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. However, the scientific rationale and mechanisms by which it functions in these diseases is still un- known. This study was designed to explore the inhibitory activity of AS aqueous, n-hexane and butanolic fractions on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. For this purpose these fractions of AS were screened for the presence of activities against AA metabolites and their effectiveness was further evaluated by studying platelet aggregation induced by AA, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet activating factor (PAF), and collageAA metabolism was studied by thin layer chromatography system while platelet aggregation was measured by dual channel Lumiaggregometer.Aqueous and n-hexane fractions of AS were totally ineffective against AA metabolism and platelet aggregation. However, butanolic fraction inhibited the AA metabolites- thromboxane B2 (TXB2) through cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and lipoxygenase product-1 (LP-1) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12-HETE) through lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. Similarly butanolic fraction of AS showed strong inhibition against AA, PAF-induced aggregation but was less potent against ADP.AS possesses components which can inhibit AA metabolism and platelet aggregation. This may be one of the underlying mechanisms of their actions in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.
WORKLOAD AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS
Maria Altaf, Kisa .F Altaf, Aaishah Iftikhar, Sharmeen Gohar & Yusra
The inability to cope successfully with the enormous stress of medical education may lead to a cascade of consequences at both a personal and professional level. Although common, depression associates with a high degree of disability and chronicity, with symptoms such as low mood, lack of energy, poor concentration, low self-esteem, and a lack of interest in the environment however stress has been shown to have deleterious effects on one‘s physical and mental well-being .The extreme stress levels inherent in the medical profession, put premedical and medical students at risk for both physical and psychological problems. The aim of this study is to determine the workload stress which leads to different health problems in medical and dental students during their undergraduate training. It was a self-administered questionnaire based survey conducted on 114 medical and dental students (32 males and 118 females) who were randomly selected in Fatima Jinnah Dental College and Dow University of Health Sciences. The result of this study shows that undergraduate medical students are suffering with stress and anxiety due to their hectic schedule and vast syllabus. From this study we can evaluate that health problems such as muscular aches and pains especially in neck, head, lower back and shoulders have increased which leads to sleep disorders. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0.This study suggests that a small percentage of medical students experience physical and mental distress throughout their medical undergraduate training.
PREVALENCE OF NEEDLE STICK INJURIES AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS.
Najma Rais & Hafiza Mubashira Jamil
Percutaneous exposure to contaminated needle sticks and other sharps is an occupational hazard to HCWS that causes morbidity and mortality from infections with blood borne pathogens. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of needle stick injuries among health care providers at Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK).The objective is to study the prevalence of NSI among HCWs, the most frequent reason of injury, common causative equipment, and affected site of hand. It is an Prospective Observational cross sectional study at CHK in its 3 units including 100 participants. Study was conducted from 2nd Jan 2012 to 28th Feb 2012. Result shows that a large percentage (77%) of HCWs reported having had one or more NSIs in their career. While 23% did not report NSI in their career.(40.3%) NSIs occurred during use of the needle. Greater part of injuries reported due to disposable syringes (45/77 or 58.4%). Finger was affected by NSIs, in 72.7% cases.Our study concluded that the occurrence of NSI was found to be very frequent among HCWs in our setup. Poor compliances to universal precautions is a risk factor for sharp injuries. Some circumstances such as pressure of work and time constraint was a contributing factor. NSIs could reduce with the use of safer designed equipment. The promotion of adequate working conditions and Training programs regarding safety precautions on ongoing basis is very essential for future control of NSIs among health care workers at Hospitals.
EVALUATION OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING TRANSARTERIAL CHEMOEMBOLIZATION (TACE) FOR HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA WITH RESPECT TO TUMOR SIZE, SITE AND NUMBER OF LESIONS.
Amjad Sattar, Shabbir Naeem, Ahsan Ali & Kiran Nazeer.
TACE is the combination of two procedures, an infusion of the mixture of chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. doxorubicin, cysplatin, or mytomycin C) and hepatic artery embolization in which particles such as polyvinyl alcohol or gelfoam, are injected simultaneously into selected branches of the hepatic artery supplying the tumor. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rarely seen before the age of 40 years and reaches a peak at around 70 years of age. Owing to its multicentricity, large tumor size and pre-existing cirrhosis most of these tumors were deemed unrespectable at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor size, site and number of lesions that is acquired on hepatic angiogram during TACE of the liver, and compare it with the information provided by pre-interventional contrast enhanced CT images as there is a possibility that CT may not show smaller lesions. This study was carried out in the Department of Angiography, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) from May to October 2011. A total of 30 patients was included in the study. All individuals underwent pre-procedural imaging with contrast material, enhanced CT angiography or MR to ensure that the disease was liver-dominant and to visualize the blood vessels of the liver. This study included 30 patients age ranges 40-80 years, 22 of whom were males and 8 of them were females. HCC had been diagnosed in all patients. Each patient underwent selective Hepatic Chemoembolization in either the right, left or in both lobes. . In comparison to CT, the hepatic angiogram showed 14(46.6%)patients having single lesion, 7(23.3%) were having double lesions and 9 (30%) were having multiple lesions. So the overall sensitivity of hepatic angiogram in the detecting number of lesions is 75 % – 80%. The size of ≤2cm HCC was found in 12(35%) patients, HCC >3cm were found in 7(21%) patients and HCC >4cm was found in 15(44.4%) patients.The size of the HCC which we found in most of the patients during our study is >4cm.
PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION OF EARLY MARRIAGES.
Sadaf Ahmed,Saima Khan, Malka Alia & Shamoon Noushad
Lower awareness of health knowledge, physical growth and development, women bearing children at early ages face higher risk of maternal health problems, disability and death, reinforces risking problems for their newborns as a result, early marriages are always being a very big issue in developing countries specially in primitive uncivilized districts of Asia including India, Pakistan and Bangladesh etc. Moreover it’s a controversial fact that in civilized society, evidences of getting married in early ages are greatly increased because of our religious beliefs, norms and social impacts. Due to early marriages young girls don’t have the ability to deal with responsibilities, early pregnancy and pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity, causing major physiological and psychological health issues in adolescent girls, resulting in losing relationship confidence and ability to maintain a healthy relationship. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the aspects of psychological disturbances occurring in married young girls along with depression rate and educational withdrawal, with comparison of unmarried young girls of the same age specifically there is a strong correlation between a woman’s age at marriage and the education that she receives. Uniformly across the countries, early marriage is associated with lower educational attainment. Observational study was conducted through multi logistic structured questionnaire and girls in b/w age of 13 to 35 were included. On the basis of above study it is concluded that early marriage, multiple responsibilities and early pregnancies are risk factors of depression and it is further evaluated that married girls are at higher level when compared with unmarried.
EVALUATION OF SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS OF DOCTOR OF PHYSICAL THERAPY REGARDING THEIR FIELD OF EDUCATION.
Bakhtawar Wajeeha Qureshi & Muhammad Salman Haider Qureshi
To assess the satisfaction level of students of Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) regarding their field of education. To identify the causes responsible for dissatisfaction of students with their field of study. Physical Therapy is an emerging and growing field in Pakistan and currently is passing through its stage of infancy. Five year program of Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) has been now introduced resulting in increased influx of students. Yet unawareness among the students as well as society still prevailed that resulted in confusing the minds of young undergraduate students of Physical Therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Peshawar. Total 100 students of Doctor of Physical Therapy. Were interviewed through structurally designed questionnaires. Ethical consideration was taken into account. The response rate was 78%. 55.1% students were found satisfied with the field, 7.6% were dissatisfied while 37.1% were unable to analyze whether satisfied or dissatisfied majority being basic sciences students. Students highlighted certain factors as responsible for their dissatisfaction.Majority of the students satisfied from their field of education belonged to clinical sciences which indicate their well-aware attitude about the significance of this field. Moreover, the students held disrespectful attitude of society, Limited facilities and job opportunities and Incapable Physical Therapists imparting bad name to this profession responsible for their dissatisfaction.
COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ANEMIA BY SYSMEX KX-21N HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER WITH PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR
Ejaz Farah, Ahmed Mehwish & Hassan Ali Nafisa
In this era, automated peripheral blood count for the diagnosis of anemia is widely accepted in routine practice. Despite the sophistication of present day instruments, there is still need to depend on manual microscopic scan of peripheral blood smear for the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of different types of anemia. Also, the correlation between automated hematology analyzer and manual microscopic scan is rare and conflicting. Hence, the present study was designed to demonstrate a procedure that, the uses of manual scan is to validate rather than to replace automation. The benefit of manual microscopic scan is the ability to identify clinically significant cell type that are not quantifiable by instruments as it “flags” on such type of cells. Therefore, automated hematology analyzer are as reliable as standard manual scan, even though the latter gives additional diagnostic information through blood pictures and less imprecision and technical error over automation. Patient care and lab operations could be optimized as a validation procedure rather than as a reflexive substitute. Hence manual microscopic scan is still gold standard in the diagnosis and classification of anemia and other blood disorders. Whereas usage of automated method would ease our workload and save time for patients.
MEDICAL STUDENTS BEARING MENTAL STRESS DUE TO THEIR ACADEMIC SCHEDULE
Maria Altaf, KisaF.Altaf, Salman Zahid ,Rabia sharf ,Ahsan Inayat, Mohammad Owais, Hisham Usmani.
Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding. Overwhelming burden of information leaves a minimal opportunity to relax and recreate and sometimes leads to serious sleep deprivation. Environmental and social circumstances play a major role in the onset of stress-related diseases. Developing countries share the heavy burden of social and economic challenges. A number of factors—including academic pressure, workload, financial concerns, sleep deprivation, exposure to patients‘ suffering and deaths, student abuse and a ―hidden curriculum‖ of cynicism have been hypothesized to contribute to this decline in students‘ mental health. This study determines the rate of anxiety and depression, and the associated social and environmental factors in undergraduate medical students. This study was divided into two measures theoretical problems and academic factors. Randomly data was collected by means of structured close ended questionnaire of 121 students from Fatima Jinnah Dental College(23 boys, 98 girls). Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 Factors causing stress in undergraduate medical students was a vast syllabus which makes it difficult for their time management, there was a direct and positive relationship for lack of time for assignments and fear of catching up after a leave.
PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEPRESSION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH; A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS IN HYDERABAD, PAKISTAN.
Raza Naseer, Muhammad Muneeb, Sanjay Maheshwari, Asad Khatri, Shamoon Noushad & Sadaf Ahmed.
Cardiovascular health hazards has become one of major life threats in Pakistan, the risks may vary from province to province. Present study aims to find out the role of psycho-social depression & its relation with risks of cardiovascular maladies in city of Hyderabad-Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2013; based on multiple logistic to investigate the relationship between Depression, lifestyle & blood pressure variations. The Study included 174 subjects both males and females gender with age between 18- 25 years. Depression rating scale was used to evaluate type & cause of depression furthermore BMI and blood pressure of each subject were also noted. Our study observed that the intensity of stress is directly related with the disturbed blood pressures. Study also observed that with the increasing BMI the prevalence of depression is high. It is therefore concluded that depression is the major risk factor that will increase the risks of cardiovascular maladies; along with other factors like obesity, psychosocial issues like elevating crime & violence rate could be the major cause of depression in Hyderabad city.