The Annals of Psychophysiology is the official journal of the psychophysiology research division, pakistan society of psychophysiology & AEIRC, provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of psychophysiology.

ISSN 2410-1354

annual, double blind peer-review, open access 

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Published By

Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre – AEIRC

Email: Journal@aeirc-edu.com

Karachi- Pakistan

Neurotransmission; Bridging Gaps…Making Synapse!!!

Sadaf Ahmed

Advance Educational Institute & Research Center (AEIRC)

My experiences at the Neuroscience meeting indicate that combined training in psychophysiology and neuroscience is valued and sought. Although the current market for occupations and funding is challenging, there is a demand for scientists who can perform or communicate interdisciplinary and translational research in neuroscience, which greatly benefits from the unique perspective offered by those with psychophysiological training.

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Suicide; A Manic Engulfing Youth

Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad & Salman Sheikh

Advance Educational Institute & Research Center

Corresponding Author: sadaf@aeirc-edu.com

Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which extends to one year or with fine or both”. (Major criminal Acts, PPC-1860 p; 209 Ed.2005). It is always disturbing to know that so many adolescents committing suicide in such quick succession, one can only wonder about the frolic snuffed so callously.

Youth is a more exposed group that is daily opened to the stress in Pakistan and opt for risky behaviors. Though the figures are alarming still more than half of cases go unreported due to reluctant families to register the case as attempted suicide. World Health Organization estimated that over 15,000 suicides get committed in Pakistan; however Psychiatrist estimated it around 7,000 annually.


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Depression, Anxiety & Stress among Patients of End Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis

Aatir H. Rajput1, Maryam Shaikh2& Sooraj Kumar3

Virtual University of Pakistan1
Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad2& 3
Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro1, 2 &3

Corresponding Author: aatirh.rajput@gmail.com

Objective This study is projected to check the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in the patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis at centers in Hyderabad and investigate the reasons behind it. Methodology This observational, multi-center study comprised of a sample of 100 patients of ESRD undergoing hemodialysis selected (via simple random sampling) from different hospitals of Hyderabad. The data was collected using interview based structured questionnaires, after taking informed consent, from 1st Dec 2014 to  10th Feb 2015. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress were gauged using the DAS scale approved by the Australian Center for Posttraumatic Mental Health. Results According to the mean scores obtained, moderate levels of depression and stress while severe levels anxiety prevailed. 69% patients declared diet control rules as bothersome. Although, 50% of respondents were on dialysate for more than a year and 83% underwent dialysis twice per week yet the mean levels of serum albumin and urea were not within normal range. Conclusion On the basis of this result we come to know that great numbers of patients of ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were suffering from anxiety depression and stress and uremia.

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Time to Fix the Perceived Physical and Psychiatric Disanalogy

Anum Haider

AQ Khan Center, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Karachi.

Corresponding Author: dranum.haider@gmail.com

Health is a combination of good physical and mental well-being. Hence, it is important to cater both physical and psychiatric health elements equally. Current practice is mismatch of this ideology and both specialties are very much separately working. In this article, the association between these two health aspects along with underlying mechanisms, underpinning factors for such dissociation, appropriate recommendations and implications will be discussed.

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Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Cognition among the Local Population of Karachi, Pakistan

Rakhshanda Bakht1, Tasmeena Saeed1, Sadaf Ahmed1&2& Shamoon Noushad2&3

  1. 1. Psychophysiology Research Lab, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi. Advance Educational institute and research center (AEIRC),
  2. Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education.

Corresponding Author: bakht.rakshanda@yahoo.com

Objective Suicide has become a leading cause of death worldwide, thus it has become a public health problem for every country in the world and thereby in Pakistan too. The aim of present study was to find out the prevalence of suicidal thoughts among the local population of Karachi. Correlations were also assessed among suicidal thoughts and demographic characteristics. Method A survey was conducted to fill out a pre-structured questionnaire from the participants between the age group of 18-30. The questionnaire contains Beck’s scale of suicide cognition, Modified scale of suicide ideation and a detailed demographic profile. Subjects were taken from different universities, medical colleges, offices and business schools. Mentally ill patients were not included in the study. Result Severe Suicide ideation and suicidal cognitions are prevalent in the population to about 4% and 3% respectively. Also in the study, demographic variations exist in subjects with respect to suicidal thoughts; male, non-working, unhappy, in-pain subjects, unmarried, being in the 18-21 age brackets and undergraduate reported higher suicidal thoughts as compared to their correspondent parameters. Conclusion It has been concluded that severe suicidal thoughts are prevalent among youngsters. And certain demographic characters are strongly correlated with amplified suicidal thoughts among youth of Karachi.

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Is More Flyer in New Generation

Nimra Siddiqui*, Syedd Anamta Knawal, Syeda Zarfshan Fatima & Kainat ghaffor

Jinnah University for women, Karachi, Pakistan.

Corresponding Author: nimrasiddiqui185@gmail.com

Obsessions are thought, images and impulses that occur repeatedly. Persons having obsessive compulsive disorder do not want to have these thoughts because these thoughts disturbing them. Ordinarily, individuals having obsessive compulsive disorder recognized that these thoughts are senseless. The common symptoms of OCD is avoid contamination such as washing hand excessively, cleaning household, etc. Now a days, the use of modern technology such as online video games, selfies and social media is increased. The over use of this technology can lead to obsessive compulsive disorder in young generations. In OCD there is Serotonin deficiency in synapse this low levels of serotonin can cause OCD symptoms. Antidepressants (SSRI’s) is used to treat OCD because it increased the serotonin level in synapse The drugs include: Clomipramine (Anafranil), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine, Sertraline (Zoloft) and Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva).The psychological treatment of OCD is very effective when it takes the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and lot of research is required for the same before it affects large population of the world and will be on the top of the list of Global Burden of Diseases.

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Depressive Symptoms among Patients of Myocardial Infarction

Aatir H. Rajput1, Hina Naz2 & Anser Iqbal3

Virtual University of Pakistan1
Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad2 and 3
Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro1, 2 and 3

Corresponding Author: aatirh.rajput@gmail.com

Objective To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among pre-diagnosed patients of myocardial infarction at a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad. Methodology This observational, cross-sectional communal survey comprised of a sample of 100 patients chosen via simple random sampling from 1st December 2015 to 28th February 2016. Written informed consent was obtained before collecting data using interview based structured questionnaires. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS v. 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2013. Results All the patients in the study belonged to an age group between 40 to 90 years. 69% of them being males and 31% females. 48% were uneducated while 52% were educated. 54% belonged to lower economic class, 43 were middle class and just 3% belonged to higher economic class. Mean depression score remained 16.12 for the patients with single heart attack whereas for the patients with repeated heart attacks the score was 19.62. 83% of the patients showed symptoms of anxiety. 51% were retarded in their speech and thought process, while 90% complained of difficulty in work. 62% complained of general aches, 54% had loss of appetite 38% had somatic complaints. 63% of the patients has health worries, 59% lost weight while 52% felt depressed. Conclusion Study suggests that patients belonged to an age group of mostly 40 and onwards. Major number of patients belonged to male gender. A significant number of patients were un-educated. Patients with repeated attacks showed higher levels of depression. Majority of the patients showed symptoms of depression and complaints due to it.

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Prevalence of Compulsive Sexual Behavior/Hyper Sexuality Disorder and Its Psychological

Manifestations in Youth

Syeda Farah Batool & Sadaf Ahmed

Psychophysiology Research Lab, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi.

Corresponding Author: emanraza14@gmail.com

Sexuality or sexual behaviors are very complex to understand and what better place to understand. “SEX” is a NO word in our families and society, however this a natural phenomenon in which male and female genes combine to form off springs. Every person on this planet have felt or experienced sexual desire or got engage in sexual activities. Many parts of the brain are involved in generating a cascade of sexual events within the body but Limbic System plays a primary role in the initiation of sexual drive/ desire. When a person gets attracted towards someone these parts of the brain become active and induce sexual desire, this is a normal body response, but sometimes these parts become hyperactive and sexual desire is uncontrollable such condition is termed as “Hyper sexuality”. In Pakistan, live-in relationships are not very common, so mostly unmarried individuals are involved in sex addiction. This study revolves around the increasing rate of compulsive sexual behavior in youth. A random survey has been conducted with approximately equal number of male and female participants. Subjects belong to the age group from 16-25 years. Almost 200 subjects have participated in this study. Exclusion criteria was above 25 years and below 16 years. People with any other neurological or psychological disorders were excluded. Approximately a 70% of the subjects were found to be on the track of getting hyper sexuality disorder and 15% of them were suffering from this disorder. This is the high time to break the barriers. We need to start thinking and try to discuss and resolve our issues on our own. So, think and talk.

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Cenesthopathy-The Paradigm in Schizophrenia

Anum Haider

AQ Khan Center, Institute of Behavioral Sciences Karachi

Corresponding Author: dranum.haider@gmail.com

In this article, the frequently presented but underestimated or neglected area has been unveiled. The Abnormal body sensations, Cenesthesias has been discussed in the context of schizophrenia. The identified underlying Psychophysiological mechanisms and treatment options will also be discussed along with future recommendations. Two cases will be presented to contemplate this condition.

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Assessment of Sleep Quality of University Students

Munaza Bibi

Bahria University Karachi.

Corresponding Author: Munaza.12star@yahoo.com

Objective To assess   the   sleep   quality of   university students   of   Karachi, and its   association with   mobile   phone use, depression and academic performance. Methodology A random cross – sectional study was conducted on 221 students and data was collected from different universities of Karachi business students. Results show that depression, mobile phone use impact on sleep quality thus affect the academic performance of students. About 38.9% students were non-depressed and 61.1% students were depressed. Sleep quality score shows that 8.6% students had good sleep and 91.4 % had poor sleep, academic performance is measured in terms of last semester GPA (38%) students had GPA 2.6-3.00, (30.3%) students had GPA 3.1-3.5, (15.4%) students had GPA 3.6-4.00, (14.5%) students had GPA2.1-2.5 and (1.8%) students’ had GPA <2.0. In terms of mobile phone use, (23.1%) students spend <5 hours, (19.9%) spend 6-8 hours, (24%) spend 9-10 hours and (33%) spend >10 hours on mobile phone. Conclusion For the development and growth of this asset “sleep” is a very important aspect vital for normal functioning of physical and mental health of students. There is a need to control sleep problems and prevent its complications through proper counselling of students about the significance of sleep. Good quality of sleep can develop better academic, physical and psychological performance of university students.

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Pain, Self-Medication and Administration of Over-The-Counter Analgesics: An Observational Study

Salman Shaikh2, Yusra Saleem2, Shamoon Noushad 2,3& Sadaf Ahmed1,2&3

Psychophysiology Research Lab, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi1

Advance Educational Institute & Research Center2

Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education3

Corresponding Author:  yusra@aeirc-edu.com

Objective Self-medication is identified as a behavioral approach that indulges an individual in the substance use as self-administration for the treatment of any physical or psychological pain. Over the counter drugs are the most widely used medicines that are commonly available and administered without the prescription of a doctor. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and associated factors that reinforce the self-administration of the analgesics. Methodology An observational study had been designed that enrolled males and females participants of more than 18 years of age, from the city of Karachi. The recruited individuals were asked to fill out a structured questionnaire inquiring about the incidence of pain and prevalence of self-administration of analgesics. Results The study had 500 participants that involved 59% males and 41% females with the average age of 24.14 + 5.02 years. 100% of the participants reported some intensity of pain with average intensity being the most prevalent. It turned out that the individuals reported mild grades of physical and chemical with a high prevalence of headaches. Conclusion The study concludes that even though the intensity of pain remains within the bearable edge, the availability of the pain killers, and accessibility of instant relief and also the possibility of decrease in tolerance has spoiled the population to opt for over the counter analgesics time and again.

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Sadaf Ahmed (Ph.D.)

World Association of Medical Editors (Full Member)

Psychophysiology Research Lab,

University of Karachi


Shamoon Noushad


Haroon M. Pillay

Kaneez Fatima Shad

Syed A. Aziz

Saima Khan


Hiba Jaffri


Sarwat O Shafiq



Zaufishan Qureshi

Atif Mahmood

Faizan Mirza

Anila Kamal

Farhat Batool

Asma Makhani

Neelofer Sultana

Muhammad Bilal

Peer Asad Aziz


Shershah Syed

M. Zafar Iqbal Abbasi


Amna Khan

Yusra Saleem

Mariyam Asim