ijehsr logo


On the behalf of INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDORSING HEALTH SCIENCE RESEARCH (IJEHSR). I congratulate entire team of IJEHSR and all our well wishers for the enormous achievement of getting recognition of our esteemed journal with Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR) – WHO, which is in itself a fantastic outcome and has positively evaluated by SJIF,scoring IF 3.641. This has already become a major boost for IJEHSR in the research community and now IJEHSR can be cited at significant platforms all over the world. We are privileged to have you all as our readers who have free full paper access to the journal. Congratulation to all with best wishes of significant scientific contributions, good collaboration and achievements for future.


Quarterly, double blind, peer-review, open access 

Print: ISSN 2307-3748

Online: ISSN 2310-3841

Key title:International journal of endorsing health science research (print/Online)

Abbreviated key title: Int. j. endorsing health sci. res. (print/Online)

IJEHSR is licensed under: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.


IJEHSR is the Quarterly journal keen to endorse finest healthcare globally mainly focusing on origins & hazards of ailment and complete array of significant psycho-social and healthcare issues. This academic journal endeavor to encourage better understanding of the healthiness concerns and deliverance of culturally proficient healthcare concerns. IJEHSR also persuade advance research and in this significant but currently under served Domain by supporting the efforts of researchers, clinicians, academics, and policymakers to work toward improved health status straddling an extensive range of disciplines, the periodical convey mutually the research, scientific, clinical and health area to overcome barriers to healthcare and other current challenges, as well as to expand options for treatment and prevention. IJEHSR includes Health concerns of individual or populations as impacted by age, race, ethnicity, religion, nationality and geographical region, mental and physical health impacts, educational capability in healthcare surroundings, general health, screening plans and disease impediment, practices and guidelines, healthcare providers, public health policies etc.


We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort for next issue of IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences. The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives, psychological & social state of art researches, public health and education studies etc.

over 50,000 recipients will receive via e-mail a copy of the table of contents for the IJEHSR  issue in which your article will be published

IJEHSR is committed to maintain high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.


International journal of endorsing health science research is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.


Indexed with

imagesdownloadOAJournals drji CenterLogooajilogoroad-issn_0CiteFactorLogo_smallpageHeaderTitleImage_en_USlogorg

follows the guidelines of international committee of Medical journal Editors




Volume 5            Issue 2            June 2017

Computed Tomography differential features of anterior mediastinal thymoma and lymphoma

Sagar Thapa 1, Wen Ming1, Xiaofeng Wu1, Christina Gyawali 2, Ruikun Liao1, Zhu Zhang1

1 The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

2 College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Corresponding Author: 13883669699@163.com


Background To identify the CT features of anterior mediastinal thymoma and lymphoma and evaluate CT findings that may help in suggesting specific diagnosis among these tumors. Method A total of fifty-eight chest CT scan studies with pathological diagnosis of thymoma (n = 30) and lymphoma (n =28) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists who were blind to the pathological results. The CT features showing cyst and calcification within the lesion, contrast enhancement, relation with pleura and adjacent vessels, bone invasion and lymph node enlargement were evaluated. Results In lymphoma (67.9%), the presence of associated mediastinal lymphadenopathy was significantly compared to thymoma. (P < 0.05). The presence of calcification within the lesion was significantly found in thymoma than the lymphoma (p <0.05). The presence of adjacent vessels relationship within the lesion was higher in lymphoma than the thymoma. (p <0.05) The remaining CT findings showed no significant difference among these diseases (p > 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion age, lymph nodes involvement, calcification and relationship to adjacent vessels on CT scan will be helpful to give specific diagnosis on anterior mediastinum lymphoma and thymoma.

downloadDownload full Paper

Comparison between lingual and labial orthodontics based on treatment of overbite by using rocking chair archwire-

A biomechanical study

Christina Gyawali 1, 2, Chao Wang 1,3, Jie Zhou 1, Sagar Thapa 4, Jinlin Song 1, 2

1 College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

2 Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education, Chongqing, China

3 Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing, China

4 The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Corresponding Author: soongjl@163.com


Background Lingual orthodontics (LiO) has developed rapidly in recent years and research on treatment of overbite by using Rocking Chair Arch (RCA) wire of different curve depths is still limited, especially with 3-dimensional Finite Element (FE) models. The main objectives are to study the biomechanical differences in maxillary anterior teeth between lingual and labial orthodontics and observe the lingual mechanics on different inclinations of teeth. Methods The force produced by Nickel-Titanium, Stainless Steel (SS) RCA for both sides was measured using Electromechanical Universal Testing Machine. 6 FE models were constructed and divided into 2 groups according to SS wire of 0.016×0.022-inch standard and mushroom arch shaped RCA of curve depth 2, 4, 6 mm. Additional 9 FE models were constructed and divided into 3 groups based on Retroclination (-5°, -10°) and Proclination (+10°). Results Use of same diameter of SS RCA with same curve depth but on different sides shows more stress and strain, displacement of teeth in lingual mechanics. Also, stress-strain, displacement increased with increasing RCA curve depth. In LiO, intrusion of normally inclined or proclined teeth are accompanied by little or no labial tipping whereas that of retroclined teeth is accompanied by further lingual tipping. Conclusion In the intrusion using Lingual RCA, to avoid the traumatic force to teeth, the curve depth should be lesser than Labial RCA or apply more elastic arch material; Aligning different inclined teeth into normal inclination firstly and proceed with the application of intrusive force can be the best approach.

downloadDownload full Paper

Pulmonary Function Tests Vary in Different Cities of Baluchistan, Pakistan

Mobin Ahmed1, Sheeba Faryal2 & Khalid Sheikh2

Asian Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS)

Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS)

Corresponding Author: dr.mubeen41@gmail.com


Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the pulmonary function tests in population living in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Method The study area was conducted in province of Baluchistan, which is the largest province of Pakistan. A cross sectional study has been carried out to observe Normal lung functioning in residents of Baluchistan followed by a randomized Sample selection of individuals from five strata of Baluchistan. Brief detail were told to the subjects that why the test were being done to make their cooperation better. Written consent from all subjects was taken after explaining the experimental procedure. Results The results of present study, as shown in (Table 4.2.1) shows significance difference on the comparison of FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEV1\FVC the mean value of FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEV1\FVC in Baluchistan with the standard Chamanern mean values according to their gender, age and height.it was found 3.46, 2.56, 379.8 and 0.741 on average with an standard deviation of 0.21, 0.14, 46.75 and 0.043 respectively. Conclusion It is concluded that FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and FEV1/FVC have significant differences in mean, the means of Baluchistan city were less than a per standard Chamanern mean values, it also gives significant differences within Citys of Baluchistan city as spirometric values exclusively depends upon body shape, chest size, BMI, Age, environment, life style, anatomical differences, altitude and lung development.

downloadDownload full paper



Peer Asad Aziz, Riaz.A.Raja , Syed Khizr Naim, Noor-ul-ain Qureshi, Sanaullah Pathan, Ali Abbas.

Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS)

Corresponding Author: asad@aeirc-edu.com


This case was reported at Department of Neurosurgery, LUMHS Jamshoro, A 12 year old male patient who admitted to neurosurgery department through OPD with complains of pain in mid back for 2 years ,loss of urinary and fecal control for last 7 months ,weakness of lower limbs for last 6months and unablity to walk since last 2 months . Patient had pain in dorsolumbar region for last 2yrs  which was on and off , severe in intensity , nocturnal relieved by injectable medications ,with passage of time initially he suffered from overflow incontinence followed by frank incontined=ce and developed weakness of both lower limbs which progressed from distal to proximal ,it was painless and caused patient to fell down after few steps ,then after short duration of time pt became bedridden ,on examining  he had decreased power in upper limbs and had power against resitance i.e. 4/5 , griping was also weak   otherwise reflexes ,tone and other findings in upper limb were normal , in both lower limb he had muscular atrophy with flaccidity , reflexes were absent ,fasciculation  was negative ,power was 0/5 in both lower limbs , plantars  were non responsive ,he had decreased anal tone with loss of bladder control he had anesthesia below D6 level and had kyphotic deformity and tenderness over mid back  rest of CNS examination was normal . Patient was investigated and Mri  of spine showed A Space occupying lesion extending from cervical to lumbar region with intra medullary presence in axial scans and.so patient underwent D9 to L1 lamenectomy with myleotomy an tumor was gross totally excised . Intraoperatively the tumor  was reddish colored,with  jelly like thread seen below tumor leve it was  adhering spinal cord seprated and removed in piece meal .histopathology revieled  oligoastrocytoma spine. Spinal oligoastrocytoma are mixed glial cells having both astrocytic and oligodendroglial components and is one of most rare of spinal cord patholiges .to date only 7 cases were reported in English literature. Such tumors occur in early adolescent and young adults till middle ages 40’s, but they can however occur in children and are very difficult to identify from astrocytomas on radiological imaging .ZHUO  described one in may ‘2016  as primary spinal oligoasrocytoma in craniofacial journal. Shinztu described another in 2004  according to him these are one extremely rare  conditions to occur and only few cases are reported he reported it 43 yr old and showed that  disease had genetic involvement with chromosome 1p & 19q ,those with such associations  have better survival ,and in that report patient further went for radiotherapy . Guo JH described primary spinal cord anaplastic  oligoastrocytoma in spinal journal in feb’2016 in paraplegic patient .according to him it is rare lesion he reported it in 10 yr old girl and her mri showed intramedullary mass from c5 to d5 with syringobulbia and syringomyleia, genetic analysis  showed 1p and 19q association and not 10 q association . Conclusion: To our best of knowledge it is one of extremely rare condition and only 7  cases are reported in past . This case report is to add on knowledge about spinal oligoastrocytoma to occur among children with their unique  presentation and large spinal  involvement  from cervical to lumbar region.

downloadDownload full Paper

To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Maitland Technique in Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in Female Patients

Sonya Arshad1, Dr. Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi1, Muhammad Nisar2

Corresponding author email mnisar@uok.edu.pk

Liaquat National School of Physiotherapy,Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College.

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi.


Aims and Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of knee osteoarthritis treatment with Maitland technique over general exercises in aged female patients. Methodology: A Cross sectional experimental study was performed on 80 osteoarthitic female patients of age between 45-60 years which were randomly selected from LNH. They were divided into 2 groups of 40 patients each. Group A received Maitland technique application while Group B received general knee ROM ex’s. All participants have received 24 sessions of Maitland and general exercises. Data has been collected and analyzed on SPSS 20 through assessment form used by Physiotherapist via pre and post evaluation of Visual Analogue Scale, Muscle Power, Muscle Tone and Range of Motion. Result: The results revealed that Group A having vasual analogue scale score =5.4 ±0.9, while Group B having vasual analogue scale score=6.25±1.4, The muscle power was 5.0±4.8 in group A,while in group B it was4.05 ±0.58, Geno-Flexion of group A was 129.5±5.2, Geno-Flexion of group B was 121.57±10.9. The results of all tests were significant with the P-value < 0.05 of Group A as compared to B. Discussion: During the OA of knee joint the decrement of a proteoglycan content of cartilage and the disintegration of collagen fibers occurs, which leads to rise in water content so there will be loss of osmotic pressure. The net result will be the degradation of cartilage, as proteoglycan has protective effects on collagen fibers. Conclusion: It was concluded that Maitland technique relieved more effectively the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis in females than general exercises.

downloadDownload full Paper

The Management of Glycemic Control in Associated Disorders

Muhammad Imran1, Sumreen Begum2, Dr. Abdul Hafeez Kandhro3, Nazia Ahmed4, Rashida Qasim5

Ziauddin University, College of Medical Technology.

Stem Cells Research Laboratory (SCRL), Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT)   Karachi,Pakistan.

Healthcare Molecular & Diagnostic Laboratory, Hyderabad, Pakistan.

Dow university of health sciences

Zian-ul-Abiden Institute of Medical Technology,Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT),Karachi,Pakistan.

Correspondence Author imrmaan@gmail.com


Glycemic control is a very useful parameter for the prevention of the chronic metabolic diseases complications such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and kidney disease. Glycemic control   management among chronic metabolic diseases has been an area of active research from the past decades. The glycemic index specifies that how fasting blood glucose level is elevated after consuming a high carbohydrate-containing diet. The metabolic studies among the human populations showed that glycemic index is directly related with different chronic metabolic diseases. The sturdiest associations are suggested that the low caloric diet consumption can prevents metabolic complications. Primary and tight glycemic control is compulsory to prevent and reduce the development of vascular complications in individuals with chronic disorders. The aim of this review was to provide a practical guideline   on the bases of the survey of the related key studies which had reflected the clinical guidelines   and current perspectives related to glycemic management. The objective of this review is also to investigate the   interventions, related to glycemic control in patients with diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, we can say that multidisciplinary management of glycemic control are powerful measure for the prevention of metabolic diseases complications, providing necessary support for reducing in economic burden of chronic metabolic diseases.

downloadDownload full Paper


Peer Asad Aziz, Riaz.A.Raja, Sanaullah Pathan, Ali Abbas ,Rabail Abro, Almas Abro

Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS)

Corresponding Author: asad@aeirc-edu.com

Background: Posterior  fossa EDH (PFEDH) is one entity which is quite uncommon and spontaneous /Drug induced PFEDH is one of most rare  radiological finding . Material and method : This case study was reported from department of neurosurgery Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences Jamshoro . A  28yrs old male patient who was known case of DVT ,presented to emergency department with severe head ache since last 12 hrs. Head ache initially started 3 days before it became severe and initially it was gradual, constant Localized to occipital region with no aggravating and relieving factors. it was associated with vomiting 5-6 episodes ,pt had also previous history of hospitalization for DVT and had history of appendectomy 6 yrs back .he had no history of trauma or blow to head and had no history of D.M II  or HTN like other familial diseases. Patient was taking anticoagulants for last 12yrs and from last 5 months he started taking warfarin 5mg tablet twice a day as he was advised by some General practioner. He had no history of addiction to any thing .on examination he was well oriented, communicative non canalized ,non catherized with normal blood pressure ,pulse ,he had bluish spots over skin his GCS at time of presentation was 14/15and rest of neurological examination was normal after history and examination his  CT Scan brain was  done and which showed posterior fossa EDH (PFEDH),which is very unusual and rare finding on imaging to occur spontaneously without any history of trauma .previously according to our best of knowledge only 18 cases of spontaneous PFEDH were reported till date since 1951 . In past such case have been reported after cardiac surgery for tricuspid area in 4yr male child. Conclusion : Anticoagulants like warfarin are beneficial drugs and have potential to cause havoc for patients if taken in appropriately so strict  monitoring should be done prior and after administration by making it a routine . This case refreshes and add on the knowledge about PFEDH to occur spontaneously after  high dose of warfarin therapy. According to our knowledge this is only 2nd case to be reported  as PFEDH after anticoagulant therapy.

downloadDownload full Paper

Measure the symptoms related to pre-menstrual syndrome among married and unmarried females during their reproductive life span.

Sonya Arshad1, Muhammad Nisar,2 Syeda Hiba Hashmi2

 Corresponding author email address: mnisar@uok.edu

 Liaquat National School of Physiotherapy, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College.

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi.


Objective: The study was aimed to estimate premenstrual syndrome and its consequent symptoms in married and unmarried females during menstrual phase, pre-ovulatory phase and post-ovulatory phase. Methodology: A cross sectional survey based study has been conducted in young females of 25-35 age groups. Participants were divided into two groups. Group A were with PMS and group B were healthy subjects. The evaluation of manifestations in all three phases was gathered by using PRISMcalendar. The data was collected and stored and analyzed by applying Chi-square test by using SPSS v.22.0. Result: The result revealed that the severity were different among unmarried (55%) and married (50%) in all three phases of Menstrual cycle. Unmarried female shows their symptoms 54.5%  in menstrual phase , 27.3%in post ovulatory phase  and  18.2% in pre ovulatory phase , while married females  express 50% , 30%, 20.0%  respectively in all the three phases. The significant (p<0.05)result were recorded in menstrual phase by showing back pain, anxiety, breast pain, headache, depression, nausea, abdominal cramps, irritability and swelling in both married and unmarried women. While Diarrhea and vomiting foundnon-significant (p>0.05).Constipation was additional significant factor present in married females. Discussion: The present study among unmarried females and married females revealed that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) differs in each of three groups. Women of reproductive age either married or unmarried showing significant symptoms of PMS, however different phases have different percentage among these two groups. Conclusion: According to our results, we concluded that in unmarried and married females, PMS were found frequently during menstrual phase and remaining two phases has no prevailing clinical manifestation.

downloadDownload full Paper

Complex DECAF scores prolong the hospital stay of patients suffering from COPD

Mobin Ahmed1, Sheeba Faryal2 & Khalid Sheikh2

  1. Asian Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS)
  2. Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS)

Corresponding Author: dr.mubeen41@gmail.com


Objective Patients with Complex the Dyspnoea, Eosinopenia, Consolidation, Acidaemia, and atrial Fibrillation (DECAF) scores prolong the hospital stay of patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Method Patients admitted to respiratory wards in tertiary care hospital, Baluchistan with COPD between June 2016 to September, 2015 were prospectively reviewed and DECAF score applied to each patient. Duration of hospitalization was then correlated with total DECAF scores. Result Out of 118 total admissions, 103 were reviewed as 15 patients died. 71% were male, mean age was 69.6 years and average of 15 days of hospitalization. The duration was longest in those with DECAF scores of 3-5 and lowest in those with scores of 0-1. Conclusion The DECAF Score is a simple and effective clinical tool that can risk stratify hospitalized patients with COPD and could therefore help clinicians managing this fatal condition.

downloadDownload full Paper 


















Sadaf Ahmed (Ph.D.)

World Association of Medical Editors (Full Member) 

Psychophysiology Research Lab,

University of Karachi



Shamoon Noushad

Advance Educational Institute & Research Center



Syed A. Aziz


Kaneez Fatima Shad


Rupa Talukdar


Zareen Siddiqui


Danesh Rokaya


Sarwat Shafiq


Sagheer Ahmed

Brunei Darussalam

Farzana Issa Shaikh


Adnan Aziz

New Zealand

Hiba Jafri


Faiza Ahmed


Zaheer Chiragh


Saima Gul

Brunei Darussalam


Shershah Syed

Pakistan Medical Association

Zafar Iqbal

Baqai Institute (Bide)

Kareem Shaikh

University of Essex

Erum Zaheer

University Of Karachi

Humera Gul

Abdul Wali Khan Mardan

Shamim Qureshi

University of Karachi

Asma Makhani

Aga Khan University Hospital

Muhammad Ali Sheraz

Baqai University

Raza Sayani

Aga Khan University Hospital

Fouzia Imtiaz

Dow University of Health Sciences

Bilal Fazal

Mirpurkhas, Sindh

Hasnain Nangyal

Hazara University, Kpk

Faizan Mirza

University of Karachi

Kanwal Tariq

Aga Khan University Hospital

Kashif Naeem

Tabba Institute of Heart Diseases

Maryam Maula Baksh

Dow Institute of Medical Technology

Bilal Azmi

Dow University of Health Sciences

Iftikhar Alam

 Bacha Khan University

Muhammad Imran

Ziauddin University


Tabba Institute of Heart Diseases

Ahson Memon

Tabba Institute of Heart Diseases

Mehwish Azam
Ziauddin University

Uzma Mazhar


Muhammad Arif

Tabba Institute of Heart Diseases


Nofel Karatela


Maria Altaf


Mahnoor Nadeem

University of Karachi