Mind Body & Soul Harmony
Sadaf Ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
Corresponding author: sadaf@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
Psychophysiological science consider foundations of the mind is exemplified as Mental processes influence the physiological state of the body and changes in the body’s physiology influence thoughts, feelings and motivational behavior. However, Harmony is a ubiquitous principle based on Motivations arise from physiological need to preserve the integrity of the organism, via processes and the ways we process or react to our environment depends on our internal bodily state. For example, if we are thirsty or hungry, the manner in which we behave toward food stimuli differs and biases perceptions, hedonics, cognitions and memory. Motivations drive behavior, while changes in the internal state of the body anticipate, facilitate or accommodate the consequences of motoric action. The result is an individual system in a state of vibrant instability internally that contributed to physical and social interaction with the external environment (Jonah L., 2009). The individual make-ups of character and behaviors has emerged out of such patterns of chemical release. The mind is supposed to be a virtual entity, one that reflects the workings of the neural networks, chemical and hormonal systems in our brain (Bennett, R. 2007 & Kaku, 2014). it cannot be localized to particular areas within the brain, though the entire cerebral cortex and deep grey matter form important components. Realization, sensitivity, conduct, intelligence, linguistic, impulse, energy, the urge to excel and intellect of the most complex kind are the product of the wide-ranging and multifaceted linkages between the different parts of the brain (Santoro, 2009). Likewise, anomalies attributed to the mind, such as the spectrum of illnesses dealt with by psychoanalysts are consequences of widespread aberrations, often in the chemical processes within different parts of the brain (Pinker S. 2003).

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Determinants of Sleep Quality among Undergraduate Students of Universities of Karachi
Fahad Khan1,2, Husna Haroon2, Hafsa Murtaza2 & Erum Anwar2
1. Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan.
2. Dow Medical College, DUHS Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding Author: husnadragneel@gmail.com

Abstract
Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the extent to which caffeine consumption, cigarette smoking, technology use, and academics are associated with the sleeping habits of university students. Methods: 643 undergraduate students aged 18 to 23 from five universities of Karachi completed a cross-sectional survey about sleep patterns and lifestyle habits between December 2014 and November 2015. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep quality. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Pearson Chi- square test was applied to determine relationship between sleep patterns and factors affecting sleep. Threshold of significance was set at <0.05. Results: Majority of the participants (60.5%) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5), with an average PSQI score of 6.5 (±3.033). Sleep duration was less than 7 hours for 71.8% (N=462) of the participants. Also, most participants went to bed between 9pm to 12am, with 52.5% of males (N=136) sleeping after 12am compared to 46.1% (N=177) of the females. Other than energy drinks, no stimulant beverage showed significant relation with sleep quality. However, coffee, tea and energy drinks had a negative impact on sleep onset latency. Smoking too showed an association with poor sleep quality (p-value <0.009) and delayed sleep onset (p-value <0.009). Mobile phone was by far the most frequently used technological device. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is prevalent among college students of Karachi. Behavioral habits like consumption of caffeinated drinks, smoking, and technology use are associated with increased odds of poor sleep quality.

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Effect of exercise on cognition in healthy males.
A comparative study.
Amaila Fazal1 and Faizan Mirza2
1. HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan
2. Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding Author: faizan@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
Cognition is an intellective action of understanding and gaining knowledge through speculation, acquaintance and practices that result in awareness, impression and perception. Cognition, Proprioception and balance all are aspects of ability of the brain to perform at high level at expense of endurance, speed and power. However, increasing age is linked with decrements in periodic memory. Thus, exercise positively impacts brain utility during middle age, particularly frontal lobe-mediated intellectual processes, like organization, programing, reticence and operational memory. The aim of the present study was to observe whether exercise improve cognitive skills or not. The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects equally divided in two groups: exercising males and non-exercising males. The subjects were asked to fill in a proforma consisting of visual test and a reading test, which aimed at comparative evaluation of the duration of short term memory between exercisers and non-exercisers. It was found that exercise impacts on frontal lobe to enhance intellectual processes and hippocampus memory processing.

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Proponents of Harmonization between Body, Mind and Soul
Waseem Hassan
Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics, University of Karachi
Corresponding Author:Abadallah.wh@gmail.com

Abstract

“The rhythm of the body, the melody of the mind and the harmony of the soul creates the symphony of life”.
B.K.S. Iyengar, a foremost Yoga teacher from India correlated the symphony of life with a balance of body, mind and soul in such a way that it answers most of the questions by people suffering from stressful lives. It must be understood that according to WHO constitution, health is defined as a complete well-being of mental, physical and social aspects of a person, not the absence of disability or disease (WHO, 1950). Not to forget that the aspect of soul is generally not considered in scientific world, this article steps forward initialising the understanding of soul as an integral part of human body in terms of philosophy as well as science. Considering the aspect of health sciences; a mind fully synchronised with the body and soul is a sign of having a greater intelligence than IQ and EQ as a mind convinced with current conditions of body and soul will be able to boost up the usage of intellect and wisdom in order to achieve greater and much effective results in terms of creativity, health and spiritual growth. One of the best ways adopted by greats of their time to achieve harmony is through meditation (Thera, 2014).

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Relation between quality and quantity of sleep and psychological distress among hospitalized patients
Aatir H. Rajput1, Nimra Aslam2, Farheen Yousaf 3 & Muhammad Muneeb4
Liaquat University Hospital
LUMHS Research Forum 
Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Institute of Psychiatry, Hyderabad 
Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro 
Corresponding email: aatirh.rajput@gmail.com

Abstract
Background Sleep is a fundamental component of good health, however its promotion in acute hospital settings does not appear to be a priority. Causes of sleep disruption are varied and include environmental and bio-cognitive factors, including pain, bright light, noise, anxiety and stress. The environmental and bio-cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation on the health and recovery of hospital inpatients are various. Inadequate sleep can lead to both psychological and physiological consequences. Objective This observational study was aimed at determining the pattern, quantity and quality of sleep and the prevalence, causes and effect of sleep deprivation / disturbance among patients hospitalized at the elective wards of a tertiary care hospital. Methods This observational study was conducted from August 2015 to January 2016, upon a sample of 50 patients admitted to Liaquat University Hospital (who had spent at least 4 weeks at the hospital). The sample of patients (chosen via simple random sampling), were interviewed consecutively every morning for 4 days and their mean response was evaluated to account for irregularities in experience. Data was collected using interview based structured questionnaire which included the 42 point DAS scale approved by Australian Center for Posttraumatic Mental Health. The data was analyzed in SPSS v. 17.0 and MS Excel 2013. Results During the stay at the hospital, DAS score of depression, anxiety and stress all rose. The most reported bothersome elements that disturbed sleep included, pain (30%), Noise (6%), and feeling of unease, irritation and panic (6%). Majority of the sample comprised of female (56%) respondents coming from rural areas (74%) with a low socioeconomic background (86%). The quantity of sleep dwindled between (but not more than) 5 to 6 hours. The quality too (self-rated by the respondents did not rise above a value of 6.5. Conclusion The conclusion is in line with our hypothesis. With the hustle and bustle happening at all hours in a hospital, patients have trouble getting adequate sleep, which has an evident the quality and quantity of sleep during their stay. Owing to the belief that sleep-deprived patients are less likely to be fully active participants in their care. It is recommended that steps should be taken to deal with this problem on a priority basis.

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Prevalence of Nosocomephobia – Hospital Related Depression
Zehra Ashraf, Syeda Arooba Raza, Fizza Khalid, Zahra Sabzwari and Dur-re-Shahwar
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for women, Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding Author: dr.zehra.ashraf@gmail.com

Abstract
Aim of research Study: The aim of study was to assess hospital phobia and its variation of depressive symptoms in primary care population. Introduction: Nosocomephobia is the fear of hospitals. It is a fairly common phobia; many people are known to suffer from it. Like that “If I go to a hospital, I’m fairly sure it is a fact that my life is not guaranteed.” Patients are afraid of hospitals, especially the emergency rooms. Hospitals are the mark of cure and health. They even usually result in huge expenses. Most people understand that it is a medical necessity and that one does not and fear must be overcome in case of Nosocomephobia though, the patient simply refuses to go to a hospital and the result often are not desirable including death especially in case of major life threatening conditions. Result: In Primary Care population (PCP) severity of Hospital-phobia is very high. Patients show different depressive symptoms like nausea, loss of appetite, mood swing etc. The result of survey shows that insomnia is the highest number found in depressive patients which is approximately 50% in male patients alone. Female the percentage is slightly low i.e. approximately 40%. Discussion and Conclusion: A survey has been conducted at Karachi to ascertain how many people are suffering from hospital phobia. Our survey result showed that the hospital fear (nosocomephobia) is very common in the biggest city of Pakistan i.e. Karachi. The best way to overcome the nosocomephobia is to change the mindset of the patient through some self-help techniques.

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Impending Early Marriage Leading to Depression,
Anxiety and Stress: Woes of Female Medical
Students at Hyderabad
Muhammad Muneeb1, Aatir H. Rajput2, Tahir Hanif3, Anam Shaikh4, Abid Ali5 and Sadia Khan6
Liaquat University Hospital
LUMHS Research Forum
Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Institute of Psychiatry, Hyderabad
Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro
Combined Military Hospital (C.M.H.), Hyderabad
Corresponding email: Muhammadmuneebchauhan@gmail.com

Abstract
Background Pakistan, like the rest of south-east Asia, is plagued with old trends and traditions that target the fairer sex in particular. Marriage tops all charts in this regard and every parent in our increasingly misogynistic society wishes to marry off their daughter as soon as possible. Doctor brides however have always been seen positively. Parents wish to benefit from this factor and get their daughters married even before they graduate. Objective We hypothesize that the fear of an impending marriage leads to depression, anxiety and stress among female medical students. This study hopes to gauge the psychosocial and psychosomatic effects. Methodology This observational cross sectional psychosocial analysis was carried out on a total of 100 female medical students of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences and ISRA University from March to June 2014. Informed consent was obtained and complete anonymity guaranteed. “Google docs” was used to collect data via online structured questionnaire forms. The data obtained was analyzed in SPSS. v. 16.0. Results 43 percent of the sample confessed that their families had, at least once, been approached for purpose of marriage. 16 percent admitted that they had themselves received marriage proposals. 88 percent of the sample held negative views regarding early marriage before graduation. Upon inquiry, 78 percent of those who had encountered prospects of marriage before graduation admitted to have felt depression, anxiety and stress along with mild psychosomatic symptoms. Conclusion Females constitute a significant majority of medical students in Pakistan and early marriage is known to adversely affect the prospects of a successful career. On the basis of our result, we conclude that even the fear of impending marriage is inducing depression, anxiety and stress among female students and can potentially harm their education and health.

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Of Scents and Brain: Olfactory Stimulation for Neuropoeisis and Intervention for Neurodegenerative Disorders
Alvira Ali
Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre
Corresponding Author: Alvira@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
Aromatherapy is an ancient scent treatment that has gained a lot of attention in the contemporary research for its various benefits. The role of olfactory stimulation leading to neuropoeisis has been a major consideration for treating neurodegenerative disorders like dementia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s as well as psychiatric symptoms like mood disturbances, anxiety and sleep problems. The literature review has concentrated on the significance of the olfaction in the mammalian physiology and enlightened the hypothesis with noteworthy evidences to support the idea that with more research and clinical trials aromatherapy can attest to be a major breakthrough in treating Alzheimer’s disease and reversing neurodegeneration.

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Life Hassles; Cause and Effect Relations among
Diverse Age Groups
Syeda Farah Batool1, Shamoon Noushad1,2 & Sadaf Ahmed1,2
1Psycho-physiology Research Lab, University of Karachi
2Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre
Corresponding Author: Emanraza14@gmail.com

Abstract
This study was done to evaluate the basic cause of trauma among people of different ages. Stress levels in subjects were observed and their reported symptoms were analyzed on the basis of physiological indications towards neurological disorder. Impact of stress on individual’s mental health and social life were determined. Sadaf Stress Scale (SSS) was used to determine the level of stress in subjects, a questionnaire based Performa was filled for evaluation of physiological symptoms regarding their trauma. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their ages. Moderate to severe stress was observed among the age group of 18-24 and 25-31, and severe stress was found in 32-38 while subjects lying in last age group i.e. 40+ were in least stress. A cause of trauma varies among different age groups. Stress does have a great impact on nervous system by altering and modulating its function. Continuous exposure to stress or stressful environment can cause severe damage to memory and perception, which either lead you to severe psychological issues or may tempt you to commit suicide.

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Understanding DÉJÀ VU
Kisa Fatima Altaf
Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education
Corresponding Author: Kisa@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
Have you ever witnessed that, say for instance, you are migrating to Northern areas of Pakistan for the first time or you are playing basketball on a court and being cheered up by audience shouting only your name, and all of a sudden it feels like as if you have been in that very moment before or maybe you are having pizza with a group of friends, teasing a friend, and you have the feeling that you’ve already experienced this very thing — same friends, same dinner, and same topic 60% of the populations, those who have experienced it for the first time assume it as Reincarnation. The phenomenon is comparatively complicated, and termed as Déjà vu. The word déjà vu is French and means, actual, “seen before”. Those who have witnessed the feeling defined it as an astounding sense of familiarity with something that shouldn’t be usual at all.

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A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Potential Stressors Leading to Depression Among Medical Students of Public Sector Universities of Sindh
Aatir H. Rajput1, Muhammad Muneeb2, Tahir Hanif3, Abid Ali4, Anam Shaikh5, Uraza Noor6 & Usama Shaikh7
Liaquat University Hospital
LUMHS Research Forum
Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Institute of Psychiatry
Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro
Combined Military Hospital (C.M.H.), Hyderabad
Corresponding email: aatirh.rajput@gmail.com

Abstract
Background: Till the 70’s, it was believed that depression among students was rare or even non-existent. This concept has now begun to change. Research studies that show presence of depressive problems in students have started surfacing but much more need to be explored. Objective: To find out the causes and level of stress and depression among undergraduate medical students of public sector medical universities and medical colleges of Sindh. Methods: This cross sectional psycho-social analysis included 587 undergraduate medical students from 6 public sector medical institutes of Sindh. Multistage sampling was implemented. Sampling procedure includes both stratified sampling and simple random sampling. Stratification was done on the basis of location of university and medical college and year of study. Informed consent was taken from every student. Stress and depression levels were measured in accordance to academic and non-academic stressors. Data analysis was done on SPSS version 17.0. Results: Girls showed a much higher depression score in comparison with boys. Hostilities had a significantly greater depression score than those who were living with their families. It was revealed that students having higher grades and GPA had much higher scores of depression compared to students having lower grades and GPA. Fear of unemployment after studies and lack of positive response from parents and institution were few of the most potent stressors. Conclusion: On the basis of our result we conclude that a decrease in medical syllabus and time extension in semesters may directly reduce students’ workload and consequently decrease the depression level. Stress management programs should be conducted in every institute for coping with the stress. Efficacious moral and substantial support from faculty, teachers and families is crucial to ameliorate of students’ health.

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Physical, Emotional and Catastrophizing Upshots of Chronic Pain the Study On Pain Stress
Uzma Naseem, Sadaf Ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
Psychophysiology Research Lab, Uok
Corresponding author: uzma@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
There are original physical basis of pain, even when an anatomical site or pathophysiological basis cannot be established, but pain also recognizes the importance of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and social factors as contributors to chronic illness behavior. It is also linked with Catastrophizing in relation with sufferer’s threshold of pain intensity, pain related disability and psychological distress are found to be significantly high regardless of any type of pain. Unlike acute nociceptive pain chronic pain is not self-limiting and usually neurological in origin, it may evolve in the damaging of either central nervous system or peripheral nervous system results into anxiety, fear, depression, sleeplessness and lack of social interaction so there is a self-perception of stress. In this study Stress has been taken as an amplified condition of psychological effects which is being induced by chronic pain. Aim of the present study was to highlight the presence of physical and emotional constraint relative to other related stresses like traumatic, nutritional and mental stress among chronic pain survivor both by observing the ability and intensity to catastrophize. In a cross sectional study, 140 individuals have been enrolled from general population who have been suffering from any type of chronic pain with exception of Menopausal women, Cardiovascular diseases, Nephropathy and cancer, and age between 18 to 50 years. For evaluation multistage random selection procedure have been performed by governing questionnaire to examine their pain duration, intensity, frequency, and degree of multi psychological feeling using PCS of Michael JL Sullivan and stress by SSS. It is concluded that sufferers rise to the challenge of difficult painful situations that leads to a number of psychophysiological disorders and raised emotional distress, especially depressive symptoms, these are often poorly controlled. On the basis of the available evidence that it is not clear whether chronic pain sufferers really do have higher levels of distress compared to others it is recommended that ability of being catastrophize as well as emotional and physical distress can be improved by various relaxation and counselling therapies that can relieve the cycle of pain.

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Evaluate Personality Disorders Symptoms
In Different Individuals
Naima Akhlaq* Urooj Asghar, Tanzeela Gul, Syeda Yusra Ali,Noma Shah
Jinnah University for women
Corresponding Author: Tanzeela608@gmial.com

Abstract
A personality disorder is a disorder described by unchangeable patterns of thinking, feeling, or disclose to others that causes problems in personal, communal, and work situations. They are characterized into three types: those characterized by odd/eccentric behavior, those characterized by suspenseful/erratic behavior, and those characterized by anxious/inhibited behavior. (catalog) BPD is widely diagnosed up to 20% of psychiatric patients have the borderline personality disorder, and it may occur in up to 2% of the general population. Biological and environmental factors are both implicated in the improvement of antisocial personality disorder. A survey was conducted in city of lights Karachi to ascertain the knowledge of building a character or how to build a character. The Personality Disorder test was administered by 500 persons who included mostly students, some Physicians, some older persons and single and married persons from age below 20 -above 30. The questionnaire was based on MCQs asking people to give fair opinion about what they feel about their emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, suicide, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as changeable interpersonal relationships. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotions, self-esteem, anger, social relationships with others and ability speaks about your rights. Some of the questions asked by us included: They have difficulty in trusting others, His/her need is more important than others, Usually Mood swings, Feeling Depressed. This survey study show that personality disorder is mostly seen in females of age between 20 -30.

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Neurological Disturbances Caused by
Nutritional Deficit
Maria Altaf & Sadaf Ahmed
Advance Educational Institute and Research Center
Corresponding Author: Maria@aeirc-edu.com

Abstract
Nutrition plays an important role in our lives to fight against any certain chronic state and its deficiency creates a damage that is termed as nutritional stress (Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad 2014). Consequences stressing life events can lead to the onset and course of mood deterioration and affective disorders such as depression. Malnutrition has been observed to affect a variety of the organ systems in body with central nervous system being on top to be disrupted. Around 792 million people in the world are having a malnutrition state due to food deficits (Thornhill S et al, 2000). A number of nutritional conditions have been observed to raise the Global burden of nutritional disorders; these include the protein deficiency, iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency. The neurological disorders associated with malnutrition can be reverted and hence it is of great importance for the public health concern. There are several disorders associated with the nutritional deficiency; some of them are briefly discussed in this review.

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