Psychophysiology Escalating in Pakistan
Shamoon Noushad
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre- AEIRC

Interest within the mind/body relationship is as ancient because it is large, and also the field of physiological psychology is researching and confirming this association. In Developed countries there has been a gap between the allopathic and alternative medical worlds with regard to views on psychophysiology because the allopathic model continuous to differentiate the mind and body as a separate entity, while the alternative medical field opinions confidently on the concept that the mind and body are complexly connected. Now western world has gotten the fact at which the emphasis is more and more on mind/body healthcare. Patients as well as general practitioner are selecting to make use of treatments built upon the holistic models in which psyche (mind) and soma (physical body) are seen as one. They are working to reduce overall stress and to heal various psychosomatic illnesses.

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Empathy Levels among Medical Students: A Psycho-Social Analysis
Sadia Shah1, Muhammad Muneeb2 & Aatir H.Rajput2
1-Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro
2-Lumhs Research Forum
Corresponding Author: drsadiashah@outlook.com
Abstract

Empathy is an important component in a doctor-patient relationship. It is an objective and relatively a stable constitutional trait. The apprehension among educationalists that clinical training may have an adversative effect on medical trainees and student empathy levels, holds truth as indicated by the existing literature. Long work/study hours and sleep deprivation may be the potential reasons believed to contribute to empathy decline. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in the empathy levels among the students, during their medical school years. The opinions and observations of medical students were recorded and interpreted hoping to determine the main reasons behind the changing empathy levels (if present). A psycho- social cross-sectional analysis of medical students’ empathy levels was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro. A 20 item JSPE-S (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy–Student Version) self-administered structured questionnaire including 7- point Likert scale was used to evaluate empathy levels among students. Convenient sampling procedure was used. A total of 300 students were approached during their class timings at lecture halls. A prior verbal informed consent was taken and those who agreed were included in the study. The duration of study was from May, 2014 to August, 2014. Data analysis was done via SPSS 16.0.41% (n=123) out of 300 participants were male while 59% (n=177) were females. The mean empathy value of first year students (91.29) was greater than that of final year students (84.53). E.S value i.e. effect size value comes out to be 0.5, which is moderately significant. Study concluded that the students at LUMHS have the least empathy score in comparison to the standard values. This decline in the empathy levels explains the change of social behavior of the students across their medical school years. It is related to the hectic and difficult time period of their studies, their personal experience with the patients, realization of the difficulties and challenges in seeking medical services.

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Experiential Evolution from both Awakening and Dreaming
Waseem Hassan
Preston Institute of Management Science and Technology
Corresponding Author: Abadallah.wh@gmail.com

Since the beginning of human time in this world, the only thing which is found constant is the change in human behavior throughout ages. The gradual change, or in more liberal senses, advancement in human form of both physiological and psychological is called evolution of human race. As humans evolved throughout millions of years uptil now, the behavior, ethics, lifestyle and thought processing have found being enhanced and a wide range of capabilities have been developed in human. In material sciences, there are two aspects of grasping the concept of evolution. One being the Darwinian Theory of Evolution in which he mentioned that all species biologically evolved throughout time from one single gene and from natural inheritance, the form changed gradually to different species and as he says, the purpose of “war of nature” is the production of higher animals.

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Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Primary Caregivers of Thalassemia Patients in Hyderabad
Aatir H. Rajput1, Faris Nadeem2 & Vikram Kumar2.
1-LUMHS Research Forum
2-Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro
aatirh.rajput@gmail.com
Abstract

A chronic genetic disorder; Thalassemia major is a disease, characterized by continuing and severe anemia, bone deformities, hepato-splenomegally and growth retardation. It is a potentially life threatening and serious life-limiting disease that brings about considerable disturbance in all aspects of life. Therapies such as transfusion of blood have enhanced the physical health status of the thalassemia major patients but numerous treatment sessions and alteration in physical appearance effects on the quality of life of the patients and their families. Depression while battling surviving thalassemia is increasingly accepted, globally. But we hypothesized that psychiatric morbidities aren’t limited to the patient, in fact they extend to the caregivers as well. Our study screens the primary caregivers for Depression, Anxiety and Stress which more often than not are the parents. This observational study encompassed all 3 major thalassemia centers in Hyderabad namely; Fatimid foundation, Zainabia center and Saharo human aid center. The city-wide survey included 79 caregivers presenting at these centers (via convenience sampling) from 1st Dec 2014 to 10th February 2015. Data was collected using interview based structured questionnaire which included the 42 point DAS scale approved by Australian Center for Posttraumatic Mental Health. The data was analyzed in SPSS v. 19.0 and Ms. Excel 2013. Moderate levels of Depression (16.06), Anxiety (10.44) and Stress (19.11) were all unearthed in the caregivers. Majority of the sample comprised of male (60.8%), educated respondents (78.5%) living in joint families (57%). The caregivers mainly belonged to lower (35.4%) and middle (54.5%) economic class and were forced to miss an average of 2-3 days of work per week. The unending therapeutic process of thalassemia, its cost and impending health problems have adverse effects not only on the patients but on the caregivers as well who spend their time struggling and praying for the patients’ health. The mental health of the caregivers should be taken into account and psychiatric consultations should be provided to the caregivers so they may be better able to tend to the patients.

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To Evaluate the Relationship between Social Anxiety & Life-Satisfaction among Adolescence in Karachi
Junaid Ahmed1, Shamoon Noushad2 & Sadaf Ahmed2&3
1-Fedral Udru University of Science & technology (FUUSAT)
2-Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre (AEIRC)
3-Psychphysiology Research Lab, Universuty of Karachi
Corresponding Author: jaajfze@hotmail.com
Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and life satisfaction in Adolescence of Karachi. The sample of 106 adolescents was randomly collected from Karachi (54 male & 49 females) age range from 18 to 25. It was hypothesized that there would be significant negative correlation between social anxiety & life satisfaction score. For measuring Socially Anxiety “Social Interaction Anxiety Scale” (Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J.C) was administered and for Life Satisfaction “Life-Effectiveness Questionnaire” (James, T. Neill.) was administered. Whole questionnaire was self-reported and in Life Satisfaction eight domains was focused with the help of Life-Effectiveness Questionnaire (1)Time Management, (2)Social Competence, (3)Achievement Motivation, (4)Intellectual Flexibility, (5)Task Leadership, (6)Emotional Control, (7)Active Initiative, (8)Self Confidence. For statistical analysis Pearson Product Correlation was applied on the Ratio/Equal Interval data scores with the help of SPSS 22.0v. Result shows significant negative correlation between Social Anxiety & Life Satisfaction Scores r=-.343, p<0.01. It is concluded that Social Anxiety has significant negative impact on Life Satisfaction among adolescence and researches reported that social anxiety convert in social anxiety disorder then it effects different areas of daily life (Stein & Kean, 2000).

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Menstruation; A Cause Of Recurrent Emotional Stress In Young Females
Afshan Tabassum1, Sadaf Ahmed1&2 & Shamoon Noushad2
1-Department of Physiology University of Karachi
2- Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
Corresponding Author: afshantabassum124@yahoo.com
Abstract

The event in the early & late proliferative period of the menstrual cycle can be experienced as physical, psychological, physiological & emotional indicators, sometimes it is well observed as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) among reproductive aged women, specifically characterized by emotional & physical symptoms that consistently occur during the leutal phase of the menstrual cycle. The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of occurrence of these characterizing symptoms as well as to compare these with PMS in young girls. We also investigated about the impact of these conditions on the quality of life. Women aged 17-35 years with pre-menstrual pain were recruited in the study. PMS related data was collected on record of severity of pain while emotional stress score were calculated by using Sadaf Stress Scale (SSS). According to our results 48% of these women reported sharp pain with 39% having pain in abdomen back and thigh region. According to SSS 26% lies in moderate emotional stress, 30% in mild and 11% in severe emotional stress. Those women having severe intensity of pain reported 80% moodiness, 60% irritability and 40% abnormal laughter. The present results showed consistent and strong relationship between PMS symptoms and level of interference in all domain of women’s quality of life. We can conclude that PMS is the most common problem in women that distresses their educational performance and emotional well-being. There should be modified strategies for the detection and management of PMS on women for better quality of life.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- a matter of concern.
Maria Mirza
Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education
Corresponding Author: maria@aeirc-edu.com

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with deterioration in various domains of major life activities. However, various exceptional cases with the disorder may be observed functioning well in some areas of life (e.g., Michael Phelps and swimming, Ty Pennington and destroying and rebuilding houses, Glenn Beck and political commentary, etc.), they probably have conflicts with other areas of functioning (DWIs, managing money, social relationships, etc.) But even if well-altered, these exceptional success stories do not represent the more typical reactions of children with ADHD followed to adulthood. It is one of the most difficult diagnoses to classify as evident from changing definition norm observed in the revisions of Diagnostic and statistical manual (APA 1980, APA 1987, APA 1994). ADHD is reportedly the most pervasive disorder of childhood influencing approximately 3% to 5% of school-aged children with prevalence rates increasing significantly over the past two decades (Pastor & Reuben, 2008; Timimi & Radcliffe, 2005). Children with ADHD struggle with symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity above and beyond what is developmentally appropriate. ADHA is diagnosed in childhood, most of the children diagnosed with ADHD exhibit symptoms that persist into adolescence and adulthood

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