WHAT IS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY? WHERE TO GO NEXT?
Kaneez Fatima Shad
Psychophysiology is an area of science which helps us to differentiate between self-reported emotion and physiological expression of emotion. Many techniques such as EMG, EEG and MEG (Magnetoencephalograph) can be used for measuring muscular and electrical activities as well as event related potentials (ERP). EMG of facial muscles (e.g. corrugator, zygomatic, and levator labii superioris/alesque) patterning plus autonomic physiology (e.g. heart rate and skin conductance level) gives a basic picture of a person sense for certain situations. For example activity at a facial muscle, the levator labii was higher during disgust than during anger (Kuhl, 2008). Psychophysiology deals with the exploitation of psychological variables and their equivalent pragmatic effects on physiological processes. Thus, this discipline examines the interactions between physiological and psychological events. In general, psychophysiology studies the behavioral consequences of physiological properties of the body at a biochemical and anatomical level, and vice versa. In short this discipline examines the perception of emotion, behavioral states, stress, cognitive task performance, personality and intelligence. The initiation, execution, maintenance and termination of behavioral events can be determined by observing the relationships between psychological factors, stimulus perception and recognition, physiological response are used to better understand these perceptions.
ASSESSMENT OF MAJOR PHYSICAL STRESSORS AND ITS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY; A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Syed Zain Azher Shamoon Noushad & Sadaf Ahmed
The purpose of this review was to highlight the concept and understanding of physical stress and to discuss its Psychophysiological mechanisms along with characteristics and major causes. The environmental and physical changes that are responsible for alterations in the homeostasis of the body is simply identified as physical stress. The brain is to interpret experiences as alarming or non-alarming which trigger the physiological and behavioral responses in each situation. We gathered a literature data from different published articles, original research papers & online sources. We hypothesized that the continuous imbalances of physiological mechanism due physical and environmental stimulus can cause physical stress and it is concluded that the major factors of physical stress includes injury, excessive exercise, noise, pregnancy, workload, pressures and temperature with the involvements of psycho-physiological mechanism.
THE PREVALENCE OF SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDERS AMONG REGULAR FEMALE PATIENTS OF FAITH HEALERS
Zaufishan Qureshi & Sehrish Naeem
The study aimed to study the prevalence of Somatic symptom disorders among regular female patients of faith healers. The study was exploratory in nature and case studies of ten females were taken. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Somatic symptom disorders among those women who regularly visit Faith healers for the cure of all major to minor illnesses and do not trust doctors after nil diagnosis. The cases were taken from Rawalakot and Rawalpindi. Detailed histories and current condition of the patients were obtained. The patients were asked for their symptoms, incidence and onset of symptoms, severity and intensity of symptoms and recurrence. On the basis of which, the patients were diagnosed according to DSM-V (2014) criteria for Somatic symptom disorder cluster. The results showed 7 out 10 women were suffering from some type of somatic symptom disorder. The patients needed to seek psychological help but they weren’t aware of this fact. All of the patients turned to faith healers because doctors provided nil diagnosis as their bodily symptoms were purely psychological.
NIGHT OWLS – THE “B” PEOPLE
If you find it hard to get up in the morning, don’t despair – you’re not lazy, you’re just genetically programmed that way, says the B-Society by Chris Morris (2007). A night owl is person who tends to stay up until late at night, and the opposite of night owl is an early bird, a lark, someone who tends to begin sleeping at a time that is considered early and also wakes early. . In many countries, early birds are called “A-people” and night owls are called “B-people.” Some of us are clearly “larks” -early riserswhile others of us are diversely night owls. The rest of us fall more or less in between the two. In study magazine, reported that IQ average and sleeping patterns are most definitely related, proving that those who play under the moon are, indeed, more intelligent human beings said Satoshi kanazawa (2010), a psychologist at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
“Royal road to the unconscious” as considered by Dr. Sigmund Freud during his dream analysis in 1900 gives a good start to the philosophers when it comes to satisfy their theories in psycho-physiological manner. During the early stages of human evolution, there have always been physical and materialistic needs that were to be fulfilled as a necessity of survival. Dreams on the contrary, laid rest in the hands of myth and mysticism and hence been defined in illogical manner which were taken for granted by most of the scholars of the times. Time passed, and the exploration of human psychology became extensively useful for medication and cure of gradually increasing diseases. The point of interest and consideration of scholars were merely diverted to the origination of dreams and the phenomenon of sleeping. It became feasible to study the psyche of behavior when the classification of conscious, sub-conscious, preconscious and unconsciousness were first made.
MENTAL, BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF POWER ENHANCING DRUGS IN CHRONIC USERS
Faizan Mirza & Sadaf Ahmed
Exercising in gym is largely aimed at getting a desirably muscled physique that is subject to peer approval as well as associated with a higher self-esteem. Many people opt for workouts that define the lean body mass, whereas others aim at getting a beefed up body. The latter being a long and tiring process, pushes many people to opt for power enhancing drugs, for boosting their athletic endurance. Among others; steroids, erythropoietin, creatine, protein supplements are available over the counter all over Pakistani Pharmacies. Together with increasing the muscle bulk, they exert highly undesirable effects on hematological as well as lipid parameters. The present study evaluated and compared the side effects reported by the users of such PED on their mind, personality and body. A proforma was filled by each subject. The results showed that depending on the type of PED used, it has altered the personality of the individual significantly. Attributes that their personality and body did not have initially were observed by them upon chronic usage of these ergogenic aids. This lead us to conclude that “amount in PRs” is not the only price these PED users pay for attaining their desired beefed up physique, with which emerged another question, is that cost actually worth it?!!
PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION IN UNDIAGNOSED POPULACE; A STUDY ON GENDER AND AGE
Syed Zain Azher , Shamoon Noushad , Nida Naeem , Sadaf Ahmed & Nelofer Sultana
Depression is a psychological disorder that affects mental state of an individual for a long and short period of time the mental disturbance sometimes occurs due to sadness. Depression is the feeling of past and present experiences in one’s life but another feeling often goes together with the depression that is the future feeling. The purpose of this study is to present the vulnerability rate to depression in relation to age and gender in general population of Pakistan .The data was collected from general population in Pakistan from 228 subjects. The integration of age and depression was investigated in different age groups of teenagers (12-19 years), young adults (20-30years) and adults (> 30 years).The age and gender difference in relation to depression was studied through a 21-item BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory-II) Scale & result analyzed by SPSS 20.0. Results shows females are at higher risk of depression as compared to Male however according to age teenagers are at higher risk.
EXAGGERATING AND RETRAINING FACTORS LEADING TO MIGRAINE INCIDENCE IN PAKISTAN
Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad, , Rida Nasir, Huma Khalid, & Shaikh Mohammad Tahir
Migraine is a neurological disorder with primary episodes of headache pain affecting populations worldwide. Almost people of all ages and family history are able to develop this pattern of throbbing and unilateral pain with visual disturbance to physical sensations. The key triggers that are most likely to initiate this headache includes psychosocial, economical, environmental or physical stress, hormonal disturbances, dietary variations, high sensitivity to light, smell and sounds.185 subjects both male and females of different ages from 16-60 years were interviewed to investigate the key triggering reasons for migraine attacks. Meanwhile they were also inquired by any restraining factors that help them to get instant or long-lasting relief. Evaluation was done on the basis of ICHD-II criteria. Moreover the family history, socio-economic status and demographic data were also noted. Our results gave a clear view that emotional and mental stress was the key trigger that can exaggerate the feeling of headache with physical strain as the other main burden. Secondly exposure to immense sunlight and bright lights was frequently reported. Other minor initiators observed were lack of sleep, dietary changes, skipped meals, menstruation, and particular smells like fragrance or unpleasant odors. While excessive sleep and medications were noted as chief controls this can restrain headache pain incidence. In this study, emotional stresses were significant in female. Psychological stress is reported to be a major contributor to headaches. The attacks may be relief by proper medication and sleep. Stress and sunlight trigger migraine head pain in majority that can be cure by proper medicine and sleep.
Dr. Hans Selye said “following the right attitude can covert a negative stress into positive one and one can easily successful life”. Stress is not always negative or dangerous and indeed, the absence of stress is death. Eustress- a positive stress, it is very healthy and person get more energy and strength to conquer the stress, this way it helps to resolve the different situation in a shortest possible time, and one gets more positive thinking and get good results at the end of the stress. It elaborates motivation and inspiration. According to Hans Sclye “adopting the right attitude can convert a negative stress into positive one”.
1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY