Annals of Psychophysiology http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app <p><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology</strong>&nbsp;is the annual, double-blind peer-review, open access&nbsp;journal committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. It<em>&nbsp;</em>is the official journal of the Psychophysiology research division, Pakistan society of Psychophysiology &amp; AEIRC, provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of&nbsp;<strong>Psychophysiology</strong>.&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives, psychological &amp; social state of the art research, public health and education studies etc.</p> en-US journal@aeirc-edu.com (APP) journal@aeirc-edu.com (Editorial Office) Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Obesity; An outcome of abnormal eating behavior http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/367 <p>The Arabic word for health صحي is synonymous in English language to “weight” وزن (Khoury, 2001), and a cultural link for perceiving weight as health can very well be understood, the impact of Arabic culture and values on a random Pakistani cannot be denied under any circumstances. Obesity is a major concern, in adults and more so in children.&nbsp;Pakistan is going through a transitional phase for some decades whereby changes are coming across in lifestyles, family structures, incomes, a new set of stresses, rural to urban shift, migrants’ influx making the transition all the more complex when compared to other countries (Nanan, 2002).</p> Faizan Mirza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/367 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Frequency of somatic complains among patients with mental illness http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/368 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> It is established that physical and mental disorders share common risk factors, among those the unhealthy lifestyle is most common. In order to achieve complete health, it is crucial to monitor both physical and mental health. Mental health problem is the most deserving area to work with because physical health issues are often neglected or mismanaged. This study intends to unveil the frequency of somatic (physical) health complains among patients with mental illness. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> In this cross-sectional study total 85 patients were enrolled from Psychiatry Out Patient Department, Civil Hospital Karachi, during 16<sup>th</sup> October to 13<sup>th</sup> November 2015. Patients were asked about the demographic details and existing somatic complaints from the pre-formulated questionnaire while data was analyzed on SPSS.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> 32.9% of the subjects were diagnosed with particular medical comorbidity. However, among undiagnosed somatic (physical) complains; endocrinological complaints were more frequent i.e.16.7% followed by 14.2% Gastrointestinal (GIT) and 13.68% Central Nervous System (CNS).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The current study supported the fact that there is a high frequency of somatic complaints in patients with mental illness. Physical monitoring is crucial for early identification and better prognosis.</p> Anum Haider, Usama Asad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/368 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Bullying; A Psychosocial Stressor http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/369 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> The bullying incidences have been increasing in the past few years resulting in a number of psychosocial traumas including depression, anxiety, violence and many other health concerns. Despite being a global issue, not a large number of studies have addressed this distressing act. This social threat causes negativity on both sides whether the victim or the perpetrator. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of this psychosocial stressor, its associated characteristics and bullying perceptions among the study population.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> A cross-sectional observational study was conducted for 5 months from July 2017 to December 2017.&nbsp; Data was collected from 399 victims between the age of 15-27 years via a structured questionnaire inquiring victim’s demographics and its associated psychosocial outcomes. Collected data was then analyzed using SPSS ver. 22.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Out of the total study subjects there were 204 females and 195 males with the mean age of 25.10 <u>+</u> 5.70 years. Around 76% participants reported daily bullying events. Bullying incidences were found more common in females i.e. 48.6% of the females were bullied by called out with mean names while only 45.8% males reported so. Majority of the bullying cases were reported from educational institutes. The most prominent psychological outcomes observed and reported by the victims in response to bullying was getting revengeful thoughts for the bully.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em> </strong>In conclusion, the study evaluated the psychological distress resulting from bullying incidences. Our study indicated a high prevalence of this public health concern in both genders and majorly in educational sectors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yusra Saleem, Shamoon Noushad, Shahana Urooj Kazmi, Salman Shaikh, Nabeela Noor, Mariyam Asim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/369 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Why Am I Not Happy Anymore? http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/370 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> A person needs to be happy to be a functional unit of the society and to add a positive and productive contribution on his behalf to the welfare of humanity. There is a very close interaction between sex and joy, and no one can escape from the fact that sexual interaction is mostly a pleasurable experience. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior among youth and to find a relation between happiness and sexual activity.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em> </strong>This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi-Pakistan. 300 subjects of both genders participated in this study while Sadaf Stress Scale (SSS) was used to evaluate the stress level of the individuals and a section of the questionnaire contained questions about the routine activities, sexual needs and its severity.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em> </strong>Results have shown that the symptoms of hypersexuality are prevalent among the youth of ages between 18 to 25 years. While 27% of unmarried subjects have experienced sex and 49% reported masturbation or phone sex is found to be the source of happiness.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em> </strong>Unfortunately, hypersexuality is not yet considered as a psychological disorder/issue in many regions of the world which gives rise to brutal and feeble act like “Sexual abuse”. It's high time to look into this matter before it’s too late.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syeda Farah Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/370 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Social media addiction is a new smoking http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/371 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Addiction is the behavior of a human in which they depend fully on the substance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2015, over 1.1 billion people smoked tobacco whereas; over 2.14 billion people used social networks. The objective of this study is to assess that is there any similarity between the addiction level of smoking and social network usage.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>This is a Cross-sectional study in which 80 participants were selected on a convenience based sampling of age 18-25 which were divided into group A (social media users) and group B (smokers). Inclusion criteria for Group A were Social network user since 5 years with user I.Ds on more than 2 social network sites and check notifications every minute however group B includes smokers who were smoking since last 5 years (1 packet per day) with no known co-morbid. All participants were asked to fill the questionnaire constructed on the basis of the Bergen Addiction Scale (BAS). Blood pressure measurement and time required to complete the cognitive task was also recorded. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.</p> <p><strong><em>Result:</em></strong> Results showed 30% mild addictors, 30% moderate addictors and 40% severe addictors in group A while 40%, 22.5% and 37.5% in group B, respectively. According to mean withdrawal effects on cognitive skills, 97.6% participants in group A were able to complete task within assigned time before cessation and after cessation only 57% participants were able to do so, while in group B 94% were able to complete task before cessation and only 72% of participants were able to do so after cessation. Lastly, the mean BP reading checked in group A before cessation was 114.54/82.34mmHg and after cessation, it increased to 122.47/90.34mmHg whereas in group B, before cessation the mean BP reading was 118.32/84.88mmHg and after cessation it was 121.42/88.63mmHg.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>It is concluded that the addiction status of social media users and smokers is almost similar. This leads to the outcome that social network abuse is as harmful as smoking on focus, concentration, cognitive skills and increment of anxiety and BP.</p> Sonya Arshad, Muhammad Faisal Qureshi, Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi, Bakhtawar Ferozali, Sidra Abdul Majeed, Summaya Khan, Haziq Ajaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/371 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Brain Circuit Remapping in Blind http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/372 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>If people dearth something regarding their senses, they mold their brain in accordance with the environs. Researches indicate vision is not always a necessity for the ramification of the brain's cortical organization. Our real endeavor is to channel people if an individual lacks something the brain rewires in a way that the lacking becomes unrecognizable and their other capabilities improve. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology: </em></strong>This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 80 subjects of age 15-30 years at Liaquat National School of Physiotherapy. Group A comprised of 40 congenitally blind subjects from Dar-ul-sukun and Ida Rieu School for blind and deaf while group B consisted of 40 sighted subjects. Senses of both groups were assessed by smelling, graphesthesia, two-point discrimination, auditory acuity test, foot tap test and sixth sense test. Collected data was analyzed on SPSS version 20 by applying independent sample t-test.</p> <p><strong><em>Result: </em></strong>The results showed that the scores of group A outweighed that of group B as all the tests showed a significant mean difference with p-value&lt;0.05. In Foot Tap Test, group A and group B showed a difference of 7.12<u>+</u>0.9 between their mean scores while in Smelling Test, there was a difference of 4.6<u>+</u>1.48. In Touch Test (Graphesthesia), the mean scores showed a difference of 2.5<u>+</u>1.22. Furthermore, there was also a significant difference between the mean scores of Group A and Group B for Discrimination Test, Two Point Discrimination Test, Auditory Acuity Test and Sixth Sense Test.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong>It can be concluded that the brain has the ability to remold itself according to the milieu. Moreover, this reorganization can also be done without deprivation by repetitive trials to augment specific functions.</p> Sonya Arshad, Muhammad Faisal Qureshi, Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi, Sidra Farooq, M. Habib Amin Malik, Mahanoor Shakeel, Rida Sabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/372 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Dealing with the psychosocial and spiritual aspects in palliative care http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/373 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Palliative care is the provision of end of life care to the patient with a terminal disease; its primary focus is on improving the quality of life rather than quantity of life.&nbsp; While palliative care emphasizes over physical body pain reduction, it also suggests psychological comfort and spiritual wellbeing. Several research studies corroborate that interventions are done to keep the patient mentally relaxed greatly affects the patient's bodily functions and reduces the sensation of pain.</p> <p><strong><em>Case Presentation:</em> </strong>In this case, the physical attributes were excellently managed but neglect was done in terms of mental and spiritual need that was evident through her verbalization of hopelessness and fear, that the disease condition is a severe punishment by God. In addition, the patient was less likely to socialize with people including friends and family. Therefore, this case has been investigated in light of multiple recent articles (2010-2015) and pointed out the evidenced-based practices that need to be done to provide care emphasizing holistic approach in order to enhance comfort to the terminally sick patients.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Management &amp; Results:&nbsp;</em></strong>It was observed that the health care providers were only concerned for the physical problems and they provided care focusing only physiological component whereas the psychological and spiritual determinants of health were greatly neglected as such that they were not included in the plan of care of the patient.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Palliative care involves not just physiological, but also psychological and spiritual care. Based on the findings of the case study, caregivers must consider psychological and spiritual aspects of care in order to provide holistic as well as peaceful end of life care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Naureen Rehman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/373 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of rising temperatures and heat waves on mental health outcomes: An alarming public health concern http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/328 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> An accumulating body of research studies have presented effects of climate change on human health. The current state of climate change supports the notion of elevated incidences of heat waves in future. The understanding of role of increasing temperatures and heat waves on altered mental health conditions stands crucial, in light of wide spectrum of effects warming climate imparts on mental health and well-being status.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology:</em></strong> Research studies with findings related to increasing temperatures, mental health and behavioural alterations, and psychopathological outcomes are highlighted in this review. Articles were searched using Google Scholar from the year 2005 to 2018 by entering keywords; increasing temperature and mental health, heat waves and mental health, heat waves and behavioural disorders, climate change and mental health, and, global warming and mental health. Studies were also selected from reference lists of the articles emerging out from these keywords provided. Newspaper articles and reports with details of heat waves in Pakistan are also included.</p> <p><strong><em>R</em></strong><strong><em>esults:</em></strong> Extreme heat exposure event is found to result in adverse mental, mood and behavioural consequences; including anxiety, aggression, and violence. Heat waves are found to potentiate risk for hospital admission, also due to mental disorders. Heat-associated mental health alterations may be attributed to compromised thermoregulation, pre-existing mental illness, old age, substance abuse and prescription medications effects, and up-regulation in release of stress hormones.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Keeping in view the impact of warming climate on mental and behavioural disorders, it appears significantly important to promote research aiming to decipher heat-induced mental health outcomes. In particular, studies are encouraged to be carried out to understand effects of increasing temperatures and heat waves on impaired mental health and psychological well-being state, develop heat-associated mental health mass awareness campaigns, and plan mental health response actions in Pakistan, which currently remain under-represented.</p> Hina Khan, Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/app/article/view/328 Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000