Annals of Psychophysiology <p align="justify"><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology (APP)</strong>&nbsp;is the semi-annual journal of the Advanced Educational Institute &amp; Research Centre’s psychophysiology program. It provides a platform for scientific contributions on all aspects of psychophysiology with emphasis on the psychophysiology of health and disease with sub-themes covering environmental and sports psychophysiology.&nbsp;&nbsp;APP is an open-access journal committed to maintaining high standards through rigorous peer-review. The journal has three sections: A review of the year’s advances in some aspect of psychophysiology, a theme section containing invited articles concentrating on an emerging area of psychophysiology, and a section on original contributions to the field.</p> en-US (APP) (Editorial Office) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Prof. Dr. Arif Siddiqui Prof. Dr. Samina Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:07:28 +0000 Problems with the continued proliferation of unsubstantiated psychophysiological techniques being promulgated and sold for clinical use <p>This journal is dedicated to publishing studies and reviews which assist our readers to recognize psychophysiological techniques, assessments, and interventions likely to be useful in a wide range of situations. Sadly, this includes informing readers when psychophysiological techniques are being promulgated and sold without sufficient evidence to support their claims of efficacy. This is crucially important because it is all too easy for most of us to mistake sales pitches supposedly supported by poor and non-existent research, testimonials, and the like for actual evidence of efficacy. Thus, readers can’t easily determine whether the technique in question has sufficient support to warrant its use. The journal will begin publishing thorough reviews of such techniques in the next few issues beginning with a review of low current and audiovisual stimulation techniques. An example of a technique which may well be effective but is being promulgated with claims far beyond the research demonstrating its efficacy is the LENS system currently being sold to treat a wide variety of clinical problems.</p> Jerry R. DeVore, Richard A. Sherman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:09:17 +0000 The chaos of healing: Risking mental health amid COVID19 in Pakistan <p>In any natural disaster, burdens of fear, insecurity, and stigmatization are ubiquitous and may act as hurdles to proper health interventions. Based on an understanding gleaned from a historical point of view of the psychosocial effect of past viral epidemics, the development and implementation of mental health assessment, support, treatment, and services are vital and persuasive aims for the health response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. COVID19 related Catastrophes vary in dimensions and scope but have affected single or multiple-family residences, districts, populations, regions, or the state as a whole. Virtual Mental health crisis intervention started helping communities mitigate the effects of the disaster and related loss by providing family, neighbourhood, and community preparedness and resilience.</p> Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:12:33 +0000 Psychological Response & Perceived Risk Associated with Coronavirus Disease <p><strong>Background:</strong> The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by WHO as it is found to be excessively transmissible &amp; to spread throughout the world. The disease has caused a worldwide impact because of the need to establish worldwide activity by extensive social distancing and quarantine due to the daily rising death toll. Through this study, we examined intend to examine the psychological effects, perceptual vulnerability, and perceived stress developed among the general population.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted from 2nd March to 26th May 2020. A total of 2188 of subjects replied to our informal online survey internationally. The respondent's demographic details and data regarding precautionary measures, perceptual vulnerability, perceived stress, and level of susceptibility of COVID-19 was collected. The perceived stress scale (PSS-10) was used for assessment of perceived anxiety, stigmatization, and fear of developing COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As per the study findings, moderate perceived stress was observed among 66.6% of the respondents. Among the protective measures, washing hands was most frequent 56.2%, but the use of face mask wasn't widespread, i.e. 48.9% rarely or never used face masks. 37.1% felt anxious around sick people, 58.5% were usually bothered by the people sneezing without covering their mouths. 32.3% occasionally felt agitated because of no control over the current situation &amp; 18.6% frequently felt stressed and/or nervous. The contact history revealed that 11.2% had close contact, 20.9% had a non-close contact, and 12.9% were those who had suspected connection with a confirmed case.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Evidently, COVID-19 has numerous psychological impacts, and the responses vary due to perceived vulnerability &amp; stress. The social distancing, disease fear, and quarantine may have some negative effects which may have some lasting consequences on general population.</p> Saima Khan, Yusra Saleem, Syed A. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:16:58 +0000 Psychophysiological effects of gum chewing on cognitive performance: A gender-based comparative study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chewing before performing a cognitive task increases oxygen levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS) areas important for processes of learning and memory. This study was done to evaluate and compare the effects of chewing gum on reaction time, visual short term memory, selective attention, verbal and non-verbal reasoning, and problem-solving ability in healthy male and female subjects.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> The comparative, gender-based, interventional study was conducted involving 300 individuals placed in the control (n=150) and interventional group (n=150). Participants in the interventional group were required to chew gum till they completed the task. A questionnaire was designed to record the reaction time, memory, attention, executive and intellectual functioning and time took to solve each parameter. Each subject in both control and interventional group completed the questionnaire with and without chewing gum, respectively. Results for the two groups were compared using SPSS version 20.0.<br><strong>Results:</strong> It was found that the gum chewing group performs significantly better than the control group, thus chewing gum significantly improves cognitive performance. These cognitive effects of chewing were comparable among the two genders but relatively more pronounced among male participants as compared to females.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Chewing gum is positively associated with higher level of cognitive performance than controls.</p> Saniya Sheikh, Amaila Fazal, Faizan Mirza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:23:53 +0000 Relationship of functional dyspepsia with mental and physical stress <p><strong>Background:</strong> Functional Dyspepsia is a globally prevalent illness, which although not life-threatening, displays a strong influence on the quality of life. Functional Dyspepsia is essentially chronic indigestion with no obvious physical cause. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of functional dyspepsia and its association with mental and physical stress. It could have the same significant association as Irritable Bowel Syndrome has with stress.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> The data were collected from 221 students from 3 medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. Subjects were asked to fill out questionnaires concerning demographics, lifestyle, and dietary habits. Rome III criteria was employed to identify functional dyspepsia and sub-sections of the Sadaf Stress Scale (SSS) was used to measure mental and physical stress.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 221 subjects majority were females (67.4%) with a mean age of 21.47 years. 34.8% of subjects were diagnosed to have functional dyspepsia, out of which around three quarters were females (68.5%). A moderate positive correlation was observed between functional dyspepsia and mental and physical stress.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded from the study results that there is a high frequency of functional dyspepsia among individuals with mental and physical stress or functional dyspepsia might cause the stress.</p> Prem Shankar, Nikeeta Mandhan, Syed Muhammad Hussain Zaidi, Muhammad Saad Choudhry, Akshay Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:26:20 +0000 Evaluating Age-related Cognitive performance; An Observational Pilot Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> To the best of our knowledge, the general population of Pakistan has never been evaluated for age-related cognitive performance. We aimed to determine the decline in cognitive abilities using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Mini-Cognition (Mini-Cog) in the three age brackets, i.e. younger, middle-aged and older adults.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted over a sample of 200 subjects (both male and female) divided into three different groups with respect to their age, i.e. younger, middle-aged and older adults. For cognitive assessment, MMSE and Mini-Cog were used with predetermined cut-off values. A point was scored for each correct answer based on the participant’s familiarization of environment, memory, speech, and ability to follow instructions to read or write. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the study findings, MMSE suggested that 2.5% of participants had severe cognitive impairment, and 23% had mild cognitive impairment. Of these, 23 participants were in between 56 to 75 years of age, indicating increased cognitive decline among older adults. The mean MMSE score was 26.58 among young adults, which further decreased to 24.06 among older adults. The results of the regression analysis displayed that age, occupational load and educational levels were independent predictors of cognitive performances (higher MMSE score) (p&lt;0.05). Besides for Mini-Cog scores, only education and occupation were the significant predictors.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This pilot study determining the cognitive performance in different age groups yielded positive outcomes. Both MMSE and Mini-Cog findings were comparable and indicated that there was a significant age-related cognitive decline which was comparatively more pronounced among males than females. However, further descriptive studies might help in defining the appropriate and timely screening of cognitive abilities using MMSE and Mini-Cog.</p> Aiman Khan, Aimon Ashraf, Huda Siddiqui, Khadija Ahmed, Fatima Ali, Laveeza Azam, Fariha Akbar, Huma Bugti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:27:46 +0000