Annals of Psychophysiology <p align="justify"><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology (APP)</strong>&nbsp;is the semi-annual journal of the Advanced Educational Institute &amp; Research Centre’s psychophysiology program. It provides a platform for scientific contributions on all aspects of psychophysiology with emphasis on the psychophysiology of health and disease with sub-themes covering environmental and sports psychophysiology.&nbsp;&nbsp;APP is an open-access journal committed to maintaining high standards through rigorous peer-review. The journal has three sections: A review of the year’s advances in some aspect of psychophysiology, a theme section containing invited articles concentrating on an emerging area of psychophysiology, and a section on original contributions to the field.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US Annals of Psychophysiology 2410-1354 Changes in the process used to critique articles based on Psychophysiologically Based Research Studies <p>Large numbers of audits have shown that we are inundated with faked studies, poorly done studies, improperly massaged data, sales pitches, etc. Few of the major studies can be replicated, and many journals still refuse to publish replications – especially if they don't support the original study's results. Thus, the way we need to critique studies has shifted from a relatively straightforward evaluation of the study to a detective process, including evaluating the author(s) and the journal in which the study appeared.</p> <p>This set of criteria is only applicable to research studies using human or non-human subjects. Studies appropriate for applying the following criteria can be from any area within psychophysiology, including clinical, sports, education, military, etc. It is not for theoretical articles, thinly veiled sales pitches, etc. The critique process is active and generally involves more than reading an article then accepting its conclusions at face value: The person critiquing a research article needs to gain some perspective on the area the article discusses, the authors' qualifications and experience (are they sales folk selling something, etc.), the literature the authors included in their review as opposed to what is published, etc. It is also likely that the critiquer will be checking the statistics and other crucial portions of the article by using statistical software.</p> Richard A. Sherman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 1 5 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.1-5 Assessment of Cortisol, Brain-Derived Neurotropic factor, C - reactive protein, Interleukin-6 levels and cognitive decline after trauma exposure <p><strong>Background:</strong> Studies have found that multiple neurobiological mechanisms are underlying the cause of Posttraumatic stress that influence the nervous and immune system leading to neurodegenerative and psychiatric comorbidities. The present study aims to assess and evaluate the serum Cortisol, C - reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive decline among subjects with trauma exposure and to determine the relationship between the above-specified stress biomarkers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two groups with trauma exposure (including natural disaster, any accident, physical and/or verbal violence, or any stressful condition) in the last twelve months were recruited. Groups were majorly divided based on TSC-40 (Trauma Symptom Checklist - 40) scores. Subjects with a TSC score &gt; 40 were kept in the traumatized group, while those with TSC score &lt; 40 were included in the control group. A total of 188 subjects above the age of 18 were recruited following inclusion criteria, cognition was measured using the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT), and serum samples were obtained for cortisol, CRP, BDNF, and IL-6 levels.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant difference in the serum BDNF (P&lt;0.001) level among the traumatized subjects, i.e. 15.68 ± 3.55 ng/dl as compared to controls 26.65 ± 2.47 ng/dl; no significant difference was found in CRP levels (ns) in both groups with a slight increase among the traumatized subjects as compared to the controls, i.e. 4.29 ± 1.50 mg/dl vs. 3.42 ± 1.11 mg/dl. As indicated by the 6-CIT score, the cognitive decline was more pronounced among the traumatized subjects, i.e. 8.54 ± 2.13 compared to the control group 5.0 ± 1.81, with a significant positive difference (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The finding suggests that traumatic stress is associated with Cognitive decline, BDNF and cortisol, whereas a non-significant association was found with IL-6 and CRP levels.</p> Shamoon Noushad Ujala Sajid Sadaf Ahmed Basit Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 6 14 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.6-14 Association between satisfaction with life and caregiver burden, among psychiatric patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> People who are dealing with psychological disorders are not able to take care of themselves; therefore, their family has to take care of them. While dealing with psychological issues is itself difficult for their family members. Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder are psychological severe disorder that has a considerable influence not only in the patient but also for the entire family. This study aims to determine a relationship between life satisfaction and caregiver burden among caregivers of patients suffering from psychiatric illness.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We started the research after approval from the board of study and prior consent from the psychiatric hospitals' higher authorities and rehabilitation centers in Karachi. The authorities demonstrated the research objectives, the consent letter, and the questionnaire to be filled by the researcher.&nbsp; Zarit Burden Interview Scale (ZBIS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (Pavot &amp; Diener) were used. The sample size of this study was 170 psychiatric patients. Psychiatric patients were divided into schizophrenia disorder (n=85) and bipolar disorder (n=85).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result indicates that the caregiver burden is the predictor of satisfaction with life in patients with bipolar disorders. It also shows in results that there was a significant difference among the different levels of the duration of illness on the variable of caregiver burden scale and satisfaction life scale among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Further, findings indicate significant differences between males' and females' caregivers of psychiatric patients on the variable of caregiver burden and satisfaction with life scale.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that caregiver burden significantly affects the mental health of the caregivers of patients with psychiatric disorders. Also, caregivers of people who are mentally ill patients suffer a lot of burdens. Therefore, interventions that can assist them, such as providing them with a support system and counselling services, must be created.</p> Farkhanda Emad Saima Masoom Ali Farhan Ishaque Aftab Ahmed Mirza Hayatullah Khalid Abid Kamal Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 15 23 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.15-23 Assessing the beliefs about antidepressant medication and adherence to therapy in patients with major depressive disorders <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients on antidepressant therapy have no contact with their physicians until their next appointment, which in most cases could be more than two weeks apart. This crucial time is of utmost importance as this could assess the patient's will to follow the prescribed therapy and the general belief about the benefits of using antidepressant treatment. Thus medication adherence is necessary to reduce the risk of suicidal tendencies and mortality in these patients. The study aimed to evaluate medication adherence and adherence to antidepressant therapy in patients with major depressive disorder.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> in this cross-sectional study, a total of 101 clinically diagnosed patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were included in the study from psychiatric and medical OPD from June 2018 to June 2019, from Jinnah Medical College Hospital (JMCH). Belief about medicines questionnaire (BMQ specific and BMQ general), regarding their views about the prescribed medication and the modified questionnaire of the medication adherence scale used, scores were calculated to give a numerical value to measure the adherence to antidepressant medication.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the study, 101 patients with major depressive disorder had an overall good belief about medication but have low adherence.&nbsp;&nbsp; Belief about medicines questionnaire (based on BMQ) BMQ- the specific q1-10 score was 36.54 (necessity, concern), BMQ-general 27.98 score, q11-18 (overuse and harm). Regarding their views about the prescribed medication.&nbsp; 86% of participants with the major depressive disorder had low adherence (scores 0-5), and those with high adherence were only 14% (scores 6-8). The patients diagnosed with the major depressive disorder who had co-morbid (diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism, etc.) had better adherence for their prescribed treatment as compared to those without co-morbid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study indicates that although patients with major depressive disorder from tertiary care hospitals in Karachi had a positive belief about medication but have low adherence to antidepressant therapy.</p> Samia Perwaiz Khan Shagufta Naqvi Rabeea Rizwan Mariam Ansari Shaista Emad Habib ur Rahman Khan Aafia Akhtar Maniya Syed Naija Ehsan Anas Moorad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 24 33 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.24-33 Behavioral and Psychological attributes of the smokeless tobacco consumers in Karachi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has been observed worldwide in the twentieth century, especially in Asian and African countries, with estimated 47% ST consumers in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential rationale of individuals for ST-initiation and various behavioural and psychological attributes of ST-consumers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted in an underprivileged area of Surjani town, West district of Karachi, Pakistan. 150 study participants were selected for the study, in which consumers of the current ST consumers (Betel nuts, Gutka and Oral Snuff) were recruited. In contrast, the individuals not taking ST served as controls. Individuals with smoking, any other type of addiction, medications for any chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes), or having any other behavioural/psychological problems were excluded from the study. A structured questionnaire was designed to evaluate the level of stress (Modified Hassles scale), addiction, and nicotine dependence. The participants were explained about the purpose of the study and the interviews were conducted by personal meet-up in their homes. Data was collected and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Curiosity and peer pressure appeared to be among the most important factors for ST consumption initiation. 25% of ST consumers were found to be at the end stage of addiction, while 36% categorized to be in the second stage of addiction. Irritation, Anger, Headache and laziness were among the most prevalent types of feelings experienced by the study participants. The reduced stress levels in ST consumers compared to the controls were due to their euphoric condition attributed to the ST. Approximately 30% of the consumers were categorized to have an increased risk of obesity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As a readily available and affordable addictive agent, smokeless tobacco consumption has been raised in Pakistan more than in the west. Smokeless tobacco consumption-initiation has been linked to increased curiosity and peer pressure.</p> Sadia Aslam Ahad Javed Hafiz Muhammad Usman Lubna Naz Samia Mushtaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 34 42 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.34-42 Burnout among emergency medicine residents <p><strong>Background:</strong> The emergency medicine department is the hub of most activity in any healthcare institution, with the most critical patients present and demand the most urgent care. However, dealing with that working day in and day out, throughout the extensive training period, has many adverse bodily and mental effects on the emergency medicine residents, the most problematic among which is burnout. The aim was to study the prevalence of burnout among emergency medicine residents.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This observational, cross-sectional analysis was conducted upon a sample of 54 emergency medicine residents selected via non-probability convenience sampling from 3 different tertiary care teaching hospitals at Karachi. After taking written informed consent, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess burnout and its sub-components (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment). Additionally, basic biodata, sociodemographic details, distress at work were inquired and recorded onto a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 54 residents enrolled in the study, 68.52% were males, while 31.48% were females. The mean age of the sample stood at 29.0±2.0 years. The mean duration of working in the emergency department was 2.0±1.0 years. Mean burnout scores were 28.4 for emotional exhaustion (high), 9.3 for depersonalization (moderate), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (moderate). The most commonly reported stressors at work included unruly patients and attendants, lack of timely cooperation by healthcare professionals from other departments, breaking bad news, and work overload.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> After careful consideration, it can be concluded that burnout is prevalent among emergency medicine residents, and steps must be taken to prevent the already distraught and scarce emergency medicine personnel from falling into dysfunction due to burnout.</p> Abdullah . Lal Shehbaz Shua Nasir Sami Jataoi Syed Jehanzeb Asim Aatir H. Rajput ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 43 48 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.43-48 A review of the literature on the impact of acute and chronic stress upon brain waves <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The biological responses associated with stress originate in the brain and involve different physiological and physical effects. The direct effect of stress on cortical responses can be visualized by recording the brain’s electrical waves using an encephalograph. These waves are recorded by means of an electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG is the most commonly used neuroimaging technique to study the patterns of brainwaves and functioning of the brain. It also measures the variation of the electric field produced by neuronal activity a millisecond at a time. To systematically analyze published studies on the difference between brain wave patterns in terms of their frequencies among subjects with acute stress, chronic stress, and normal individuals.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;The data from published studies was arranged quantitatively and qualitatively by producing a planned summary measure. Studies that focused on brain wave analysis of the EEG of healthy adult subjects with no history of mental illness or head injury were included in the review. The selected literature included many types of stressors that are acute or chronic, and that affected the neuronal electrical activity. The only electronic database utilized to identify relevant studies was PubMed.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong>&nbsp;Fifteen studies were included that were based on a variety of acute stressors to observe alterations in brain wave activity between stress-free and stressed states. These studies showed that stressors could be a causative factor to generate fluctuations in neuronal oscillations that also leads to significant psychological, physiological and neurobiological deteriorations to some extent. An additional sixteen studies were included, which showed the effect of chronic stress on the asymmetry of the amplitude in the frequencies of brain waves.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong> The most common change observed was in the alpha frequency (8-13Hz), followed by changes in beta waves (13-30 Hz) and theta (4-8Hz). Though, there is not always the same resultant pattern of waves explored with even the same type of stressors due to interpersonal differences in response to a stressful situation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shamoon Noushad Sadaf Ahmed Basit Ansari Yusra Saleem S. Farah Batool Syeda Farah Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 8 1 49 61 10.29052/2412-3188.v8.i1.2021.49-61