Annals of Psychophysiology 2018-08-10T10:57:27+00:00 APP Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Annals of Psychophysiology</strong>&nbsp;is the annual, double-blind peer-review, open access&nbsp;journal committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. It<em>&nbsp;</em>is the official journal of the Psychophysiology research division, Pakistan society of Psychophysiology &amp; AEIRC, provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of&nbsp;<strong>Psychophysiology</strong>.&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives, psychological &amp; social state of the art research, public health and education studies etc.</p> Suicide; A manic engulfing youth 2018-08-10T10:51:58+00:00 Sadaf Ahmed Shamoon Noushad Salman Sheikh <p>Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which extends to one year or with fine or both”. (Major criminal Acts, PPC-1860 p; 209 Ed.2005). It is always disturbing to know that so many adolescents committing suicide in such quick succession, one can only wonder about the frolic snuffed so callously.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Depression, anxiety & stress among patients of end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis 2018-08-10T10:54:24+00:00 Aatir H. Rajput Maryam Shaikh Sooraj Kumar <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study is projected to check the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in the patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis at centers in Hyderabad and investigate the reasons behind it. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This observational, multi-center study comprised of a sample of 100 patients of ESRD undergoing hemodialysis selected (via simple random sampling) from different hospitals of Hyderabad. The data was collected using interview based structured questionnaires, after taking informed consent, from 1st Dec 2014 to 10th Feb 2015. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress were gauged using the DAS scale approved by the Australian Center for Posttraumatic Mental Health. <strong>Results:</strong> According to the mean scores obtained, moderate levels of depression and stress while severe levels anxiety prevailed. 69% patients declared diet control rules as bothersome. Although, 50% of respondents were on dialysate for more than a year and 83% underwent dialysis twice per week yet the mean levels of serum albumin and urea were not within normal range. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> On the basis of this result we come to know that great numbers of patients of ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were suffering from anxiety depression and stress and uremia.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Time to fix the perceived physical and psychiatric disanalogy 2018-08-10T10:54:46+00:00 Anum Haider <p>&nbsp;Health is a combination of good physical and mental well-being. Hence, it is important to cater both physical and psychiatric health elements equally. Current practice is mismatch of this ideology and both specialties are very much separately working. In this article, the association between these two health aspects along with underlying mechanisms, underpinning factors for such dissociation, appropriate recommendations and implications will be discussed.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal cognition among the local population of Karachi, Pakistan 2018-08-10T10:55:34+00:00 Rakhshanda Bakht Tasmeena Saeed Sadaf Ahmed Shamoon Noushad <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Suicide has become a leading cause of death worldwide, thus it has become a public health problem for every country in the world and thereby in Pakistan too. The aim of present study was to find out the prevalence of suicidal thoughts among the local population of Karachi. Correlations were also assessed among suicidal thoughts and demographic characteristics. <strong>Method:</strong> A survey was conducted to fill out a pre-structured questionnaire from the participants between the age group of 18-30. The questionnaire contains Beck’s scale of suicide cognition, Modified scale of suicide ideation and a detailed demographic profile. Subjects were taken from different universities, medical colleges, offices and business schools. Mentally ill patients were not included in the study. <strong>Result:</strong> Severe Suicide ideation and suicidal cognitions are prevalent in the population to about 4% and 3% respectively. Also in the study, demographic variations exist in subjects with respect to suicidal thoughts; male, non-working, unhappy, in-pain subjects, unmarried, being in the 18-21 age brackets and undergraduate reported higher suicidal thoughts as compared to their correspondent parameters. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been concluded that severe suicidal thoughts are prevalent among youngsters. And certain demographic characters are strongly correlated with amplified suicidal thoughts among youth of Karachi. <br> Keywords Suicide, Imagination, Beck’s Scale, Suicidal Cognitions</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Obsessive compulsive disorder is more flyer in new generation 2018-08-10T10:56:05+00:00 Nimra Siddiqui Syedd Anamta Knawal Syeda Zarfshan Fatima Kainat Ghaffor <p>&nbsp;Obsessions are thought, images and impulses that occur repeatedly. Persons having obsessive compulsive disorder do not want to have these thoughts because these thoughts disturbing them. Ordinarily, individuals having obsessive compulsive disorder recognized that these thoughts are senseless. The common symptoms of OCD is avoid contamination such as washing hand excessively, cleaning household, etc. Now a days, the use of modern technology such as online video games, selfies and social media is increased. The over use of this technology can lead to obsessive compulsive disorder in young generations. In OCD there is Serotonin deficiency in synapse this low levels of serotonin can cause OCD symptoms. Antidepressants (SSRI’s) is used to treat OCD because it increased the serotonin level in synapse The drugs include: Clomipramine (Anafranil), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine, Sertraline (Zoloft) and Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva).The psychological treatment of OCD is very effective when it takes the form of cognitivebehavioral therapy (CBT) and lot of research is required for the same before it affects large population of the world and will be on the top of the list of Global Burden of Diseases.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Depressive symptoms among patients of Myocardial Infarction 2018-08-10T10:56:21+00:00 Aatir H. Rajput Hina Naz Anser Iqbal <p>&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among pre-diagnosed patients of myocardial infarction at a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This observational, cross-sectional communal survey comprised of a sample of 100 patients chosen via simple random sampling from 1st December 2015 to 28th February 2016. Written informed consent was obtained before collecting data using interview based structured questionnaires. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS v. 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2013. <strong>Results:</strong> All the patients in the study belonged to an age group between 40 to 90 years. 69% of them being males and 31% females. 48% were uneducated while 52% were educated. 54% belonged to lower economic class, 43 were middle class and just 3% belonged to higher economic class. Mean depression score remained 16.12 for the patients with single heart attack whereas for the patients with repeated heart attacks the score was 19.62. 83% of the patients showed symptoms of anxiety. 51% were retarded in their speech and thought process, while 90% complained of difficulty in work. 62% complained of general aches, 54% had loss of appetite 38% had somatic complaints. 63% of the patients has health worries, 59% lost weight while 52% felt depressed. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Study suggests that patients belonged to an age group of mostly 40 and onwards. Major number of patients belonged to male gender. A significant number of patients were un-educated. Patients with repeated attacks showed higher levels of depression. Majority of the patients showed symptoms of depression and complaints due to it.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior/hyper sexuality disorder and its psychological manifestations in youth 2018-08-10T10:56:37+00:00 Syeda Farah Batool Sadaf Ahmed <p>&nbsp;Sexuality or sexual behaviors are very complex to understand and what better place to understand. “SEX” is a NO word in our families and society, however this a natural phenomenon in which male and female genes combine to form off springs. Every person on this planet have felt or experienced sexual desire or got engage in sexual activities. Many parts of the brain are involved in generating a cascade of sexual events within the body but Limbic System plays a primary role in the initiation of sexual drive/ desire. When a person gets attracted towards someone these parts of the brain become active and induce sexual desire, this is a normal body response, but sometimes these parts become hyperactive and sexual desire is uncontrollable such condition is termed as “Hyper sexuality”. In Pakistan, live-in relationships are not very common, so mostly unmarried individuals are involved in sex addiction. This study revolves around the increasing rate of compulsive sexual behavior in youth. A random survey has been conducted with approximately equal number of male and female participants. Subjects belong to the age group from 16-25 years. Almost 200 subjects have participated in this study. Exclusion criteria was above 25 years and below 16 years. People with any other neurological or psychological disorders were excluded. Approximately a 70% of the subjects were found to be on the track of getting hyper sexuality disorder and 15% of them were suffering from this disorder. This is the high time to break the barriers. We need to start thinking and try to discuss and resolve our issues on our own. So, think and talk.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cenesthopathy-The Paradigm in Schizophrenia 2018-08-10T10:56:57+00:00 Anum Haider <p>&nbsp;In this article, the frequently presented but underestimated or neglected area has been unveiled. The Abnormal body sensations, Cenesthesias has been discussed in the context of schizophrenia. The identified underlying Psychophysiological mechanisms and treatment options will also be discussed along with future recommendations. Two cases will be presented to contemplate this condition.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of sleep quality of university students 2018-08-10T10:57:12+00:00 Munaza Bibi <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the sleep quality of university students of Karachi, and its association with mobile phone use, depression and academic performance. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A random cross – sectional study was conducted on 221 students and data was collected from different universities of Karachi business students. <strong>Results:</strong> show that depression, mobile phone use impact on sleep quality thus affect the academic performance of students. About 38.9% students were nondepressed and 61.1% students were depressed. Sleep quality score shows that 8.6% students had good sleep and 91.4 % had poor sleep, academic performance is measured in terms of last semester GPA (38%) students had GPA 2.6-3.00, (30.3%) students had GPA 3.1-3.5, (15.4%) students had GPA 3.6-4.00, (14.5%) students had GPA2.1-2.5 and (1.8%) students’ had GPA &lt;2.0. In terms of mobile phone use, (23.1%) students spend &gt;&lt;5 hours, (19.9%) spend 6-8 hours, (24%) spend 9-10 hours and (33%) spend &gt;10 hours on mobile phone. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> For the development and growth of this asset “sleep” is a very important aspect vital for normal functioning of physical and mental health of students. There is a need to control sleep problems and prevent its complications through proper counselling of students about the significance of sleep. Good quality of sleep can develop better academic, physical and psychological performance of university students.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pain, Self-Medication and Administration of Over-The-Counter Analgesics: An Observational Study 2018-08-10T10:57:27+00:00 Salman Shaikh Yusra Saleem Shamoon Noushad Sadaf Ahmed <p>&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong> Self-medication is identified as a behavioral approach that indulges an individual in the substance use as self-administration for the treatment of any physical or psychological pain. Over the counter drugs are the most widely used medicines that are commonly available and administered without the prescription of a doctor. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and associated factors that reinforce the self-administration of the analgesics. <strong>Methodology:</strong> An observational study had been designed that enrolled males and females participants of more than 18 years of age, from the city of Karachi. The recruited individuals were asked to fill out a structured questionnaire inquiring about the incidence of pain and prevalence of self-administration of analgesics.<strong> Results:</strong> The study had 500 participants that involved 59% males and 41% females with the average age of 24.14 + 5.02 years. 100% of the participants reported some intensity of pain with average intensity being the most prevalent. It turned out that the individuals reported mild grades of physical and chemical with a high prevalence of headaches. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that even though the intensity of pain remains within the bearable edge, the availability of the pain killers, and accessibility of instant relief and also the possibility of decrease in tolerance has spoiled the population to opt for over the counter analgesics time and again.</p> 2017-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##