Determinants of sleep quality among undergraduate students of universities of Karachi
Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the extent to which caffeine consumption, cigarette smoking, technology use, and academics are associated with the sleeping habits of university students. Methods: 643 undergraduate students aged 18 to 23 from five universities of Karachi completed a cross-sectional survey about sleep patterns and lifestyle habits between December 2014 and November 2015. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep quality. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Pearson Chi- square test was applied to determine relationship between sleep patterns and factors affecting sleep. Results: Threshold of significance was set at <0.05. Results: Majority of the participants (60.5%) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5), with an average PSQI score of 6.5 (±3.033). Sleep duration was less than 7 hours for 71.8% (N=462) of the participants. Also, most participants went to bed between 9pm to 12am, with 52.5% of males (N=136) sleeping after 12am compared to 46.1% (N=177) of the females. Other than energy drinks, no stimulant beverage showed significant relation with sleep quality. However, coffee, tea and energy drinks had a negative impact on sleep onset latency. Smoking too showed an association with poor sleep quality (p-value <0.009). Mobile phone was by far the most frequently used technological device. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is prevalent among college students of Karachi. Behavioral habits like consumption of caffeinated drinks, smoking, and technology use are associated with increased odds of poor sleep quality.
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