Ethical Considerations

Duplicate/Overlapping Publication

The author must avoid dual publications. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Manuscripts received from separate research groups or from the same group analyzing the same data set can be considered independently only if they differ in analytic methods, conclusions, or both. If the data interpretation and conclusions are similar, it may be reasonable although not mandatory for editors to give preference to the manuscript submitted first.

Scientific Misconduct and Retraction Process

Scientific misconduct includes data fabrication; data falsification, including deceptive manipulation of images; and plagiarism. When scientific misconduct is suspected, or concerns are raised about integrity of work described in submitted or published papers, the editor initiate appropriate procedures according to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines. The procedure involves investigation at the authors. If then scientific misconduct is proved through the investigation, the retraction process is followed.  Expressions of retractions would prominently labelled in all its forms (abstract, full text, PDF).  Retracted articles would remain in the public domain. The validity of previous work by the author of a fraudulent paper cannot be assumed.

Research Involving Human or Animal Subjects

Research involving experiments with human or animal subjects should conform to ethical standards outlined in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The relevant section is II.F., Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association with all current revisions and amendments. When applicable, institutional review board approval should be indicated in the manuscript. Also, the manuscript should describe the manner in which informed consent was obtained from any human subjects. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed. downloadResearch Involving Human or Animal Subjects