International Journal on Women Empowerment <p>The&nbsp;<strong>International Journal on Women Empowerment</strong>&nbsp;is annual, double - blind peer-reviewed, open access journal providing a holistic understanding of society. Its objective is to encourage and publish research, analysis and informed discussion on all aspects of women. It provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of&nbsp;<strong>“Women”</strong>.&nbsp;<strong>IJWE</strong>&nbsp;is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.&nbsp;</p> en-US (IJWE) (Editorial Office) Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Nine key issues affecting girls and women worldwide <p>The spelling of "woman" in English has progressed over the past millennium from&nbsp;wīfmann to&nbsp;wīmmann&nbsp;to&nbsp;wumman, and finally, the modern spelling&nbsp;woman but over the last many decades or should say centuries not much has been changed men has been praying on women sexually and otherwise, rape and humiliation of women has increased over the years despite new law and awareness. The part of the problem may be most of the decision pertaining to women from top are being made by men.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syed A. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Violence against women in Pakistan – A cultural or a criminal problem? <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: black;">There are various problems and issues surrounding the subject of violence against women but the most complex one is the harassment and violence against them. This has always been a dominating social and public health problem which always needs a considerable attention, as it depicts physical, psychological, social and emotional significances (<span class="normaltextrun"><span style="background: white;">Sarwar, 2013 &amp; </span></span><span style="background: white;">Pico-Alfonso et al., 2006</span>) According to</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> World Health Organization (WHO)<span style="color: black;">, it is estimated that globally about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide suffers intimidation, domination, victimization and/or emotional abuse affected by the intimate sexual partner </span>(World Health Organization, 2017)<span style="color: black;">. Interpreting violence against women is a complicated issue which includes beating, murder, kidnap, rape, physical assault, acid throwing, forcefully aborting female babies, battering and courtship violence (<span class="normaltextrun"><span style="background: white;">Khan et al., 2009</span></span>).</span></span></p> <p><br><br></p> Laila Tul Qadar, Osama Shabbir, Fauzia Imtiaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Women Empowerment: Key to Socio-Economic Development <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Empowering a women is the key issue in developing nations. Despite of the fact that women are an integral part of any society, yet their involvement in decision making via their active contribution in economic activities is very low. Women empowerment and economic development are interlinked, where on one hand, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between women and men while on the other hand, empowering women can benefit development.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A short communication of 5 years i.e. 2014-2018. Databases used were Google Scholar, PubMed, Research gate, Scopus and web of science.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Providing consideration of working at individual consciousness level in order to develop women's sense of their own potentials and critical recognitions of the obstacles within social dimensions, so that women identifies their potentials and put efforts together with other women like a distinctive power to confront inequalities and injustice, will turn out to be ‘power for’ positive societal modifications. Also setting resources in hands of underprivileged women while discouraging gender inequality not only at home but also in society results in enormous development settlements. Those Expanding opportunities for women’s in communal works, investment, agricultural and further areas hasten economic progression, helping to lessen the effects of current and future financial crises.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> For improving quality of life there is high necessity of fundamental alterations. Policies should be created to improve the women status as useful society members. There is a high necessity of women’s active participation not only in decision making processes but also in planning and implementation of development programs.</p> Saima Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Women labor force participation in Pakistan: a survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pakistan has least growing economy in Asia; with semi-industrialized economy that backs on agriculture, industry and services. Although since 2005 the gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing an average 5 percent a year; which is not enough to keep up with fast population growth. One of the factor behind low economic growth is less female labor force participation. The present study was conducted to look for the reasons behind this low pace of participation from half part of the population.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Present study has descriptive design as the sole purpose was to gain new insights of the phenomena. Survey was conducted using convenient sampling; comprising of 160 responses, since the respondents were selected because they were easily accessible to the researcher. No statistical test has been applied on the data, as this study is only representing the differences in responses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results demonstrated that female youth of Pakistan is enthusiastic about being economically independent but due to social-cultural limitations and lack of support from government it would become difficult for them to achieve their goals.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study came up to the conclusion that women in Pakistan are motivated and ready to be part of labor force but due to socio-cultural hindrances they are failing to do so.</p> Huzaifa Sarfaraz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Empowering Women by sharing life struggles: A critical Discourse Analysis of Muniba Mazari’s inspirational speech. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The study presents the critical discourse analysis of Muniba Mazari speech (confined to one speech about her life struggles in her own words in TEDx) to unveil the concept of empowering women by sharing life struggles in Pakistani socio-cultural context. Muniba Mazari is UN representative of women of Pakistan and considered as the ‘iron lady of Pakistan’ that is why in this research her one speech at TEDx Malaysia in 2017,which went viral on social media. Her life story and struggle in the form of speech is analyzed by using Textual dimension of Three dimensional model of Fairclough (1989) approach to critical discourse analysis which is integrated with M.A.K. Halliday’s (1985) Systematic Functional Grammar (SFG).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This qualitative study analyzed linguistic elements used by Muniba Mazari in her speech while sharing her life struggles in order to unveil the concept of women empowerment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The finding include the excessive use of Pronoun ‘I’ which shows the explicit power as a woman. By using words with negative connotation like ‘disable’ she gave new direction to look at these words which have negative connation. Moreover, the key findings include how she was trapped in her societal customs and at last after her tragedy she took step for herself.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study will play an important role in the emerging trend of women empowerment in Pakistan by analyzing the language of an iron lady of Pakistan.</p> Shaista Shahzadi, Muhammad Hanif, Hifza Imtiaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological impact of matrimonial rejection; A study on mental well-being of females <p><strong>Background:</strong> Women deserves the essence of being made aware of the idea that they are much-needed, vital humans before respect and recognition and not perfunctory beings to be displayed like vegetables in a&nbsp;Market. The culture of imposing will and setting a threshold for a girl’s ‘marriageable age’ is&nbsp;brutal. And so is&nbsp;the trend of making a girl exhibit herself before strangers who could throw any piece of unbound judgments about the physical and social appearance of the girl without having to offer any compunction. The aim of our study was to explore the psychological impact of matrimonial showcasing on the mental health of women.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An observational study was conducted through a structured questionnaire that inquired the subject’s demographic details and the psychological and emotional adverse impacts of matrimonial display was also monitored. Data was collected from 100 females from diverse age groups and occupational statuses. All unmarried females were included in the study while married were excluded. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS version 22. All quantitative variables were summarized as mean, standard deviation (SD) while frequency and percentages were given for qualitative variables. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results suggested that a high ratio of females think that these matrimonial services are used as a business and felt disrespectful because of such rejections which were made on the basis of complexion, height, weight, cast, and financial instability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results indicate two major aspects related to mental health of these girls, one is direct impact of this every other day showcasing that is leading such girls to range of behavioral difficulties and second is the collective concern about the effect of these annoyances in the girl’s social living that can be an essential factor of overall development of unconstructive societal impact.</p> Yusra Saleem, Mariyam Asim, Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ABSTRACT BOOK <p>AEIRC has always promoted and believed in the fundamental rights of women to the highest attainable standard of health, including physical, mental, emotional well-being. This year our annual International Women empowerment Conference has reached its 5th year successfully. AEIRC has decided to broaden the horizon. As Women Empowerment helps women in accelerating their social, economic, political and legal strengths, to ensure equal-right, and to make them confident enough to claim their rights, this is how empowered populations developed a foundation for sustainable social, economic and environmental development and for peace and security, and vice versa. However, despite many advances over the previous decades, large numbers of women still suffer ill health, with thousands dying every day from preventable infections or diseases that are caused mostly due to poor hygiene. This conference is to endorse the efforts based on the solutions for empowerment of women that includes Education through mass communication including both women and men who should be made aware of their responsibilities to promote and practice gender-equality. This conference will also focus on women in the field of Information Technology, Science, Engineering and Mathematics and how women are working along men in the technical world. AEIRC- Women research division presently hosting this conference with important panels like Women in Technical world, Women infections, what after me too movement? Feminine Hygiene, Women &amp; Computing &amp; Social media. AEIRC has successfully achieved 5th year of this annual gathering and we hope like all the years this year we will be able to enlighten each participant with the issues and probable solutions that is needed for an overall development of the society. This year the conference proceedings include around 90 abstracts of keynote talks, panels, and free papers to be presented both in oral and poster format. The panel sessions. This year the theme of conference will focus on Women in Science &amp; Technology, also on social change and Nutrition and Hygiene of women. We are thankful to International bodies like Microsoft, ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), Nutrition International, Right Start, Canada Pakistan Research &amp; Development Council and National collaborators&nbsp; including Tehrik-e-Niswan, Pakistan Medical Association, ORIC-University of Karachi, Pakistan National Forum for women health, Essa laboratories, OBS pharma and Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education for their academic support and collaboration that has definitely raise the content of conference towards advancements and implementation. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Team AEIRC ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000