International Journal on Women Empowerment <p>The&nbsp;<strong>International Journal on Women Empowerment</strong>&nbsp;is annual, double - blind peer-reviewed, open access journal providing a holistic understanding of society. Its objective is to encourage and publish research, analysis and informed discussion on all aspects of women. It provides a forum for the publication of original contributions on all aspects of&nbsp;<strong>“Women”</strong>.&nbsp;<strong>IJWE</strong>&nbsp;is committed to maintaining high standards through a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies. Any infringements of professional ethical codes, such as plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, bogus claims of authorship, should be taken very seriously by the editors with zero tolerance.&nbsp;</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal on Women Empowerment 2413-4252 Gynecological Cancers, are we in the right direction to address this very important female health issue? <p>&nbsp;Focus of the matter is the female cancers are morphologically same but are clinically and etiologically different is almost every continent which makes it little difficult in managing and put a little more toll on clinicians. A cancer diagnosis is often linked to family medical history, lifestyle choices, or something in the environment. And while you can’t control your family history or your whole environment, healthy lifestyle habits such as a good diet, regular physical activity, weight control, and quitting smoking if you’re prone to lighting up are all within your control.</p> Syed A. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 01 01 The prevalence and perceived impacts of early marriages: A Study on women in Rural Pakistan <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">The prevalence of early marriage has been well documented in developing countries, however women’s own perspectives on the practice are less well recognized. This study sought to explore female perspectives on early marriage in rural Pakistan in order to further understand its immediate origins and outcomes. A total of 56 participants were recruited and interviewed, with an array of probing questions htat investigated the social and cultural context of their marriages. Of those interviewed, 14.3% were married before the age of 15 and 30.4% of women were married between the ages of 15 and 18, indicating that only 55.4% of the respondents were married after reaching the legal age, in Sindh, of 18 years old. Furthermore, 51.8% and 57.1% of women responded “YES” when asked whether their marriage affected their education and health, respectively. Approximately 21.4% of women felt their marriage affected their social life, and 46.4% felt it impacted their professional careers. In determining the cause for marriage, 75% of women agreed that it was largely due to family pressure, and when asked about the cultural context of the marriage, 82.1% of females responded that cultural norms and practices were highly influential in determining their age at marriage. Only 57.1% of women agreed their marriage was by choice, and women who indicated they were satisfied with the marriage also noted they had no choice but to be satisfied. Early marriage is still an extremely prevalent phenomenon in rural Pakistan, especially in rural Sindh, despite the laws forbidding the practice. In order to effectively combat forced child marriage, there needs to be a higher emphasis on gender equality in education that eventually overturns deep rooted cultural norms, and further initiatives that lift families out of poverty and empower women by increasing female autonomy and women’s options outside of their household/childbearing roles.</p> Maham Karatela Yusra Saleem Shershah Syed Shamoon Noushad Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 2 9 It’s Not a Taboo, Period! <p>A teacher barged in our class who was not apparently used to teach us any subject, and said</p> <p><strong>“Your bodies are growing now, have you noticed??” </strong></p> <p>She tried to enlighten us about puberty without using the word “puberty”. She left after few minutes of talk perhaps because she had to give the same lecture in the other sections of 6th grade as well. We all were left confused, some were laughing however, everyone was curious, guys made fun of girls as usual. That was my first lesson about my body, I hadn't discussed it with anyone before, like others I also thought it was immoral, and private……..</p> Faiza Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 10 11 Sexual abuse among married females; A threat to mental and emotional health <p><strong>Background: </strong>Any form of sexual hostility, including rape, child molestation, incest, and similar forms of non-consensual sexual contact that results in psychological stress and trauma in the victim is counted as sexual abuse. The person is then victimized with the feelings such as shame, terror, depression, guilt, and many blame themselves for the assault. Repeated abuse results in long lasting destructive and traumatic effects such as panic attacks, hyper vigilance and many females complain about sleep disturbances, suicide ideation, psychosomatic symptoms and flashbacks because of these sexual assaults. Unfortunately in Pakistan as far as the marital rape is concerned it is still considered as the right of men to treat, use, love, betray or built sexual relationship with his wife according to his own wish even if it is against the female’s will. <strong>Method: </strong>An observational study was conducted that included the information provided by married females with their own will and submitted the data to the experimenter in a personal interview. <strong>Resu</strong><strong>lts</strong>: suggest that approximately 70% of the females were forced, threatened or even hurt to be intimate with their partners un-willingly even if they were mentally or physically unable to do so. There was a high ratio of females who were involved in the sexual encounter just to avoid verbal and physical abuse. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: However no women is willing to talk about such events happening in her life and do not consider any help in this regard because of a numeral social, cultural and religious barriers that are major contributors for her declining mental and emotional health.</p> Yusra Saleem Sadaf Ahmed Shamoon Noushad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 12 18 Marital Rape; A Myth or Fact? <p>Marital rape is one of the serious issue in all over the world. Marriage is a relationship where things are better worked when they are in mutual understanding and acceptance; any deed which is with force or without consent is considered unfair. Likewise, forced sex with spouse or to demand sex without consent is considered as marital rape, but still in many countries and culture it is not considered any serious issue, moreover this topic is considered a taboo which should not be discussed inside or outside of the family.</p> Huzaifa Sarfaraz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 19 21 Non-medical preimplantation gender selection. A clear gendercide and sexism in Pakistan. <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">Assisted reproductive technology (ART) advances since the birth of Louis brown in 1978 since then this field introduces innovative techniques such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This technique offer the opportunity to fertile and infertile couples to select sex of their offspring prior to implantation via in-vitro fertilization (IVF). These techniques in Pakistan are practicing since three decades without any legislative authorities that actually favors to choose a son instead of a daughter. This accounts as an unethical tradition in international market which also indicates a substantial social harm to our state in coming future. Non-medical sex selection is believe to be exhibits sexism and gendercide, which can threatens the psychological welfare and future liberties of the child. Also it promotes a common social stereotype of sex upon children from the moment of their birth and create uneven gender distribution which can lead to a social devastation like; incidence of child marriage and sex trafficking, kidnapping and selling of women, fraternal polyandry etc. This section, mainly in Pakistan, making a call for legal and regulatory possibilities, enforcing a ban on non-medical sex selection for its contribution to gender inequality and gendercide.</p> Neelam Barkat Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 22 25 Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development Goals- Planet 50-50 by 2030; are we on the right track? <p>Women and girls are almost half the world’s population and they are on the fronts that’s why often more intensely impacted than other genders by poverty, weather change, food uncertainty, lack of healthcare, and worldwide economic crises. Their contributions are central to outcomes. With the new global 2030 roadmap and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) advised by UN Member States on 25 September 2015, included aspects on how women are affected by each of the 17 proposed SDGs, as well as how women and girls can be key to achieving each of these goals.</p> Sadaf Ahmed Shamoon Noushad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-09 2018-05-09 3 26 30