Catastrophizing Pain; A more feminine characteristics of pain & discomfort

  • Uzma Naseem Psychophysiology Research lab, University of Karachi
  • Sadaf Ahmed Psychophysiology Research lab, University of Karachi. Advance Educational Institute and Research Centre
Keywords: Catastrophizing, rumination. Pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), Sadaf stress scale (SSS), Central nervous system (CNS), Peripheral nervous system (PNS).


Catastrophizing is associated to occurrence and maintenance of magnified pain threshold, pain is related to worry and fear which leads to inability in diverting attention away from pain due to which psychological distress are supposed to be high irrespective to any type of discomfort. Fear of pain is a characteristic feature which describes a maladaptive cognitive expression by sufferers with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Catastrophizing pain has been interpreted as an emotional variable as fear of pain and has been defined as highly negative expressive reaction to pain eliciting stimuli involving a high degree of mobilization for avoidance behavior which inversely reduces the quality of life. The Aim of the present study was to evaluate susceptibility of catastrophizing pain among male and female sufferers. Moreover, this paper discriminates between those who authentically perceive pain to that who catastrophize. Moreover, find out reasons behind that catastrophizes suffer heightened pain experiences and increased emotional distress and how do we conclude whether pain in the absence of peripheral pathology is ‘real’ or not. In a cross sectional study, 140 individuals have been enrolled from general population who have been suffering from any type of chronic pain with exception of Menopausal women, Cardiovascular diseases, Nephropathy and cancer, and acceptance of age between 18 to 50 years. For evaluation multistage random selection procedure have been performed by governing questionnaire to examine their pain duration, intensity, frequency, and degree of multi psychological feeling using pain catastrophizing scale of Michael JL Sullivan. The results indicated a manipulative behavior in expression of pain or discomfort more common among females than males. This might be due to many psychosocial constraints that in turn exaggerate the catastrophizing of pain reporting and emotional instability in females. By discriminating between true and fake point of view in pain it was concluded that Pain catastrophizing in most of the individual found to be pre-existing trait of mindset due to their daily practices on the other hand it was observed that small ratio of females who reported low worst pain intensity with less catastrophized comparatively some of the proportion of females reported high degree of worst pain with high catastrophizing the inverse factors between them was emotional frustration, which was low in fake pain preceptors this is because people may not undergo emotional frustration after exploring exaggerated pain behavior to seek attention.