International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) <p>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p>IJEHSR&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;IJEHSR is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for Eastern Mediterranean Region.</p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> en-US <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="">Copyright Notice</a></p> (Editorial Office) (Managing Editor) Fri, 01 Mar 2019 09:41:48 +0000 OJS 60 Work related thumb pain, its prevalence, risk factors and prevention among physical therapists <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Previous studies conducted worldwide which indicated that many physical therapists are prone to develop a thumb pain just because of their occupation. The nature of the work in a physical therapy practice is physically demanding which prone the physiotherapists to work related thumb pain (WRTP) as it involves repetitive tasks, high force manual techniques for treating patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of thumb pain arising due to physiotherapy.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology: </strong>An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to December 2018 and participating population included both male and female physiotherapists who are currently in practice. Participants that have undergone forearm or hand surgery, victim of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those who were retired or working out of Karachi were excluded. The sample size was calculated through open epi version 3.0 and data was collected from 100 subjects from districts of Karachi (Saddar, Liaquatabad, North Karachi, Gulberg, North Nazimabad, Malir, Gulshan, Korangi and Orangi). The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 22. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to find out the association between WRTP among physical therapists.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results: </strong>According to the study results physical therapists are at increased risk of developing WRTP, with prevalence of 48%. Physiotherapists that are most commonly affected by WRTP are 39% and they aged &lt;30 years. It was found more prevalent among manual therapists (29%). Trigger point therapy is mentioned by 23% of the respondents as an important pain exacerbating cause for their WRTP. Also, manipulation (17%) and mobilization (17%) are the techniques that result in thumb pain. Change in the choice of treatment techniques (17%) is a consequence of WRTP.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Physical therapists who are using manual therapy techniques in musculoskeletal conditions experienced more WRTP. However, thumb pain is mostly provoked by trigger point therapy. The best therapy for WRTP is rest, considering the most satisfaction about this treatment.</p> Areesa Yaseen, Hajra Yaseen, Amna Yaseen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Medicinal plants and their traditional uses in Thana Village, District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Local herbalists share valuable contribution in usages of plants for different medicinal purposes. The field of ethnobotany plays a key role for modern medicines. Due to the rapid advancement of medical sciences, the use of plant species in traditional ways is getting declining. Documentation of such knowledge was much more necessary for awareness of the local community. Current research was conducted in the village Thana, district Malakand.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>An ethnobotanical survey was conducted through an open-ended and semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire collected information about plant species, its therapeutic uses and data about the customary values of these species. Mostly people belonging to rural areas and of more than 40 years of age were interviewed due to their vast experience and knowledge. Several informants were interviewed to confirm information regarding the uses of each plant species. These plants were taken to the local hakims and pansaris additionally. In the majority of cases, single plant species were found to be used in several ways and therefore can be said having numerous roles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>On the basis of collected data a total of 50 plant species were documented in the area which plays a key role in improving the health and wealth of local inhabitants. Lamiaceae is being ranked on the top as it contributes number to collected species. Out of 50 plant species,46 species were recorded best for medicinal purposes, 10 plant species were found good as&nbsp; fodder, 4 species for ornamental purposes, 14as food and vegetable, 12 as firewood, 8 for furniture and hedges purposes, 3 species were documented as poisonous and 4 species were found to be utilized for ornamental purpose.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>The study area is found rich in terms of floral diversity. Local inhabitants of the area use the plant species in traditional ways for the curving of different diseases since early times. Due to anthropogenic pressure and natural disasters flora of the area facing huge pressure of extinction.</p> Haseena Gulzar, Ali Hazrat, Kiran Gulzar, Fayaz Ali, Nasrullah Khan, Mohammad Nisar, Imran Khan, Abid Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice in physiotherapy <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Patient and clinician relationship plays a pivotal role in the progress of treatment. Evidence based practice is the key methodology which integrates the best research evidence, clinical expertise and patient need for a better outcome. To evaluate the factors that influence the application of evidence based physiotherapy in public and private sectors of Karachi, Pakistan.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to December 2017 in major physiotherapy clinics and rehabilitation centers of Karachi covering major government, semi-government and private sectors. Data was collected from 75 practicing physiotherapists through convenience sampling technique and were asked to fill self-administered close-ended questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS Version 16 and chi-square test applied.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Result:</strong> Lack of availability of resources to access information was noted to be the biggest practitioner barrier while disinterest in evidence based practice (EBP) was considered as the least important. Among various organizational barriers, lack of time provided by management and lack of support among physiotherapists were stated to be the biggest barriers. Perception of evidence based physiotherapy was noted to be generally positive among the physiotherapists. Graduates with experience of 1-5 years were found to be keener to refine their EBP skills and were more likely to agree that EBP integration with practical knowledge improved prognosis. Almost 70% well experienced (10 years +) physiotherapists were reported to have access to research publications whereas 80.4% fresh experienced said they were confident of their capability to search relevant research.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Individuals and organizations should work to rectify the identified barriers from this study and express learning in a way that helps them in applying research findings to ordinary patients in ordinary clinical settings.</p> Priyanika Jesrani, M. Sarfraz, Kailash Kumar, Fauzia Imtiaz, Rubina Kanwal, Farheen Hasnain, Husna Haroon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Level of occupational stress and its associated factors among house officers of Dow University of Health Sciences <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Work-related stress&nbsp;has always been an important concern in medical practice. Occupational stress and pressure in the medical profession, social expectations, training schedule, hostile job environment, and time management issues are the specific stressors in medical practice. Definite steps must be taken to overcome the effects of occupational stress. The aim of this study is to measure the level of occupational stress and its associated factors among house officers of Dow University of Health Science Ojha Campus, Karachi.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2018 to July 2018, including 100 house officers from different departments including M.B.B.S., Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT), Nursing, and Institute of Medical Technology (IMT). Informed consent was given to all those house officers who were working at the time of the study and fulfilled the inclusion criteria i.e., age 24-30 years, both male and females. Medical professionals, age &gt;30 years, any infectious diseases were excluded. Self-designed questionnaire for demographics and workplace stress scale questionnaire based on 8 parts was used for stress evaluation and data recording. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version and the ANOVA test was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Almost equal level of stress among house officers of different departments was observed. Results were compared among different departments as mean stress level i.e. DPT *19±5.679, IMT 21.08 ± 5.627, IoN as 19.08 ± 4.890 and MBBS as 19.40 ± 4.907. According to the study results, there was no significant difference in stress level between house officers of different departments.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Continuous or progressive stress is commonly seen among young medical professionals and is more challenging to prove their work and identity in an exhausting work environment. So, there is a need for awareness to reduce burn out and stress management strategies should be taken for improvement of mental health among young health professionals.</p> Ambreen Shahzad, Saba Aijaz Ali, Urooj Fatima, Huda Erum, Rimsha Munawar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatitis B and C related knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care workers in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan –A potentially disastrous area <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Azad Kashmir, Pakistan is potentially dangerous area for earthquake disasters. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of health care workers (HCW’s) in this region is essential to prevent spread of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in case of disaster.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology: </strong>This descriptive observational prospective study was carried out to assess the HCW’s KAP regarding HBV and HCV in major hospitals of Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. A validated study questionnaire was distributed among 320 HCW’s of Combined Military Hospital (CMH) and Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS), Muzaffarabad, to assess KAP of HCW’s regarding HBV and HCV. All HCW’s of CMH and AIMS, Muzaffarabad were included in the study. While, HCW’s of these hospitals with HBV and HCV infection were excluded from the study. Analysis was done in Microsoft Excel and Graphs were generated for KAP of health care workers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results: </strong>In knowledge component all health care workers know about parenteral transmission of Hepatitis B &amp; C (100%) but their knowledge regarding non-parenteral transmission is incorrect (65.62% and 31.2%). Knowledge about prevention status after Hepatitis B vaccine is also incomplete (40.62%). Hepatitis B &amp; C related attitude in health care workers is acceptable. Overall practice regarding Hepatitis B &amp; C spread is acceptable but half of the health care workers have knowledge regarding use of immunoglobulins after Hepatitis B &amp; C infection and regarding continuity of work after accidental exposure to Hepatitis B or C (43.75% and 28.12%).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study found gaps in KAP of HCW’s. The shortcomings found in KAP of HCW’s needs to be addressed through regular educational programs in order to prevent the spread of HBV and HCV in the studied.</p> Munawar Ali Khan, Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Abdul Rauf Janjua, Kerim Hakan Altintas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness regarding complications of type II diabetes mellitus among diabetics in Karachi, Pakistan <p><strong>Background: </strong>Research shows that people with diabetes have an astonishingly low level of awareness about diabetes, its related complications and management. The aim of our study was to assess the knowledge of diabetics regarding complications of Diabetes Mellitus Type II. This will help us identify knowledge amongst patients regarding their long-term illness.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted over a time span of two years in all three Ziauddin Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Both male and female patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Type II aged 30 years and above were included in the study. Those suffering from Diabetes Mellitus type I, Diabetes Insipidus, and Gestational Diabetes were excluded. A sample size (n) of 151 was calculated, with the assumption that the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Pakistan is 11%. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Chi-square test was applied to present association between study variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total 157 subjects with diabetes, 83 (53.3%) were males and 74 (46.5%) were females with a mean age of 53.8±11.9 years. 77.7% of patients were having cardiac disease awareness (p=0.042), and 60.5% of participants were aware of eye problems (p=0.016). Only 33.1% of patients were aware of stroke as a potential complication (p=0.05). Furthermore, awareness of nerve weakness was 40.8% (p=0.355) and kidney problems were 54.8% (p=0.019).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Diabetic patients included in this study were aware of most of the complications of diabetes and a significant difference was found in those patients who had personally experienced these complications.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Huda Younis, Safa Younis, Saad Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of laughter therapy in cognitive skills improvements <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> In today's society, a huge population is facing intellectual health problems. Therapeutic expense of such problems leads people into a financial burden. Inspite of squandering cash on pharmaceutical prescription, it is better to take benefit from laughter therapy. It is a part of human behavior, which helps human clarify their intentions in social interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of laughter on cognition.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology: </strong>This uncontrolled experimental study was conducted on 80 participants, recruited on convenience bases. All 18-30 years aged subjects with no chronic psychological disorder were included. While patients with a chronic psychological disorder were excluded from the study sample. Participants were divided into 3 groups: 26 participants in Group A, 33 participants in Group B and 21participants in Group C. Cognition skills were assessed by using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score before and after laughter therapy session of about 25 mins. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS version 21.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> All the groups showed improvement in MoCA score after laughter therapy. Group A MoCA score after therapy was 22.70. Group B MoCA score after therapy was 25.10. Group C MoCA score after therapy was 25.42.By mean analysis, we figured out that there is a greater change of cognition seen in members of Group C than in Group B and change in Group B is greater than in Group A.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that laughter improves cognition and regulates neurotransmitters. Moreover, it has great influence in daily life and puts a great impact on memory and cognitive skills.</p> Sonya Arshad, Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi, Muhammad Faisal Qureshi, Minha Hanif, Imama Iftikhar, Majid Ayoub, Sanjay Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000