International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR <p>IJEHSR is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally mainly&nbsp;focusing on origins &amp; hazards of ailment and complete array of significant psycho-social and healthcare problems and barriers. This academic journal endeavors to encourage both basic and clinical health science scholars to publish the manuscripts for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms, healthiness concerns, current challenges, disease treatment, and prevention. IJEHSR invites all these domains endorsing concerns of individual or populations as impacted by age, race, ethnicity, religion, nationality and geographical region, mental and physical health impacts, educational capability in healthcare surroundings, general health, screening plans and disease impediment, practices and guidelines, public health policies etc.</p> en-US <div class="pkp_structure_content has_sidebar"> <div id="pkp_content_main" class="pkp_structure_main" role="main"> <div class="page"> <p>By submitting manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms the following:</p> <ul> <li>The work is original and free of plagiarism.</li> <li>Any material that has been taken froth other authors work, it has been properly referenced.</li> <li>For tables (s) or figure(s) taken from any website or other research papers or books, written consent of the publisher/ author is taken and will be able to provide it to the editorial office of the Journal upon request.</li> <li>The work has not been published before (except as part of thesis or dissertation).</li> <li>The manuscript is not under simultaneous consideration by any other journal.</li> <li>The work does not voilate intellectual property rights.</li> <li>The manuscript does not contain any subject matter that contravenes any laws (including defamatory material and misleading and deceptive material).</li> <li>The work meets ethical standards applicable to the research discipline.</li> <li>All authors agree with the preparation and submission of the submitted manuscript.</li> <li>All contributors who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not listed as the authors. Their names are mentioned in the Acknowledgment section and have given&nbsp; their written permission to be named.&nbsp;</li> <li>All submissions including patients information are believed to be obtained as per criteria described in the&nbsp;<a href="http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/instructions">instructions to authors</a>&nbsp;and if required the author(s) are liable to submit the written consent to the Editorial Office.</li> <li>In consideration for publication of the work, the author(s) grants&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR&nbsp;</strong>an exclusive and royalty-free worldwide licence to reproduce, publish and communicate the work, or any part of the work, to the public in any and all media for commercial, educational and all other purposes.</li> <li>In addition to the Author's moral. rights in respect of the work, the author(s). retains the right to: <ol> <li>Use copies of the work for non-commercial purposes within his/her institution.</li> <li>Use the work for further research and presentations at meetings and conferences.</li> <li>Use the figures and research data in his/her own future works.</li> <li>Share print or digital copies of his/her work with colleagues for personal use or study.</li> <li>Include the work in part or in full in a thesis provided it is not published for commercial gain.</li> <li>Place his/her pre-publication version of the work on a pre-print server.</li> <li>Place his/her pre-publication version of the work on a personal website or institutional repository on condition that there is a link to the definitive version on the&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;website.</li> </ol> </li> <li>When exercising any of the rights assigned or granted, each party is required to give sufficer: acknowledgement of the contribution made by the other party to the published material including a citation to the International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research.</li> <li>If the paper is rejected, all rights under this license revert to the author(s).</li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="pkp_structure_sidebar left" role="complementary" aria-label="Sidebar">&nbsp;</div> </div> <div id="pkp_content_footer" class="pkp_structure_footer_wrapper" role="contentinfo">&nbsp;</div> journal@aeirc-edu.com (IJEHSR) journal@aeirc-edu.com (Editorial Office) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Knowledge attitude ratio of blood donation among medical and non-medical university students http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/172 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Due to lack of active blood donation, Pakistan fails to meet the basic medical requirements. That’s why, to increase the medical facilities and to motivate a sense of humanity, this practice is mandatory. Rigorous aimed advertising and information; ulterior motive and privilege of unpaid healthy volunteer donors for blood are needed for a satisfactory and safe blood and blood components.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;This was a cross-sectional comparative study between medical and non-medical universities. A total of 150 students were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used which comprised of 14 questions including demographics (gender, marital status, university, year of study and blood group) and blood donation questions related to knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The data was analyzed using statistical package for social software (SPSS) version 16. The Statistical test applied was Chi-square Pearson’s test where appropriate P-value &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Out of 150 participants 17(11.26%) were donors and 113(88.08%) were those who didn’t participate in blood donation. Where else, the donors 12 (71 %) belonged to Medical and 5 (29%) from Non-medical, indicating that students with poor knowledge donate the least. Only 53 (43.70%) have some knowledge related to blood donation. Insufficient concept and different fears (needle injury, transmission of blood-borne diseases etc.) were the principal factors discouraging them from donating.&nbsp; The attitude towards blood donation was positive for both groups (Medical and Non-Medical) i.e. (49.95%). But despite this percentage, both groups i.e. (Medical and Non-Medical) showed no willingness towards donating blood.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;The result of this study conclude that the objective of voluntary blood donation could be more effective if specific donor’s personal information and educational background is obtained, motivation and recruitment strategies must be focused. Administrate donation camps periodically in high-schools would invigorate more students (those having trouble with time and information).</p> Sabeen Ali, Hafsa Habib, Urooba Aslam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/172 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatic Steatosis: Can herbs cure this? http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/173 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Accumulation of fat in the liver is known as liver steatosis which occurs as a result of obesity. Ginsenoside is glycosylated saponins easily found in Asia, Egypt and China. The aim of this study is to determine the role ginseng in treating fatty changes of liver measured by weight, size, and enzymes.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>It was an experimental study on animals. Ginseng root extract was prepared under expert supervision. Fifty male rats were divided into five groups each has to contain ten animals. Group 1 on balanced diet (control), Group 2 on high fat diet (HFD) obese control, Group 3 on HFD + Ginsenoside (100mg/kg body weight), Group 4&nbsp; on HFD + Ginsenoside (200mg/kg body weight) and Group 5 on HFD + Ginsenoside (400mg/kg body weight). Animals were weighted at commencement then weekly and finally before sacrifice. Animals were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia, the liver was isolated and removed. Liver weight and size were measured.&nbsp; Blood was collected through cardiac puncture and sent to DDRRL for LFT.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>By giving HFD, increase in liver weight, as well as the liver size and liver enzymes, was observed.&nbsp; Ginsenoside when given to HFD induced liver steatosis leads to decrease in liver weight, liver size, and liver enzymes. It had a prompt effect on reducing body weight as well as liver weight by reducing fat contents of the body.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>The study provides evidence that Ginsenoside has hepatoprotective effects by reducing the weight, size, and enzymes of the liver.</p> Rabia Rehan, Khalida Perveen, Fauzia Imtiaz, Sahar Mubeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/173 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hypovitaminosis D and anthropometric measurement association in young healthy females of Karachi http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/174 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Vitamin D deficiency recognized as a pandemic problem around the globe. In the last few decades, the incidence of hypovitaminosis D is affected severely in both genders of Pakistan. Due to economical hurdles and sociocultural practices, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is much higher in females which leads to age-related chronic bone &amp; skeletal deformities. To find out vitamin D profile associated with anthropometric measurement of young healthy Pakistani females.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>115 healthy female participants were recruited for the study. Demographic profile, physical activity status, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements of participants were collected by means of a questionnaire designed for the study. Participantsto two groups, vitamin D deficient (VDD) group, and vitamin D adequate (VDA) group. Anthropometric measurements of both groups included body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold (TSF), corrected mid-upper arm muscle area (CMUAMA) and circumference of thigh size, neck size, biceps size and wrist size. Data were analyzed using Microsoft office 2013. &nbsp;A t-test was applied to find out the associations. P value &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;P-value for all anthropometric measurements, was found to be non-significant. Unhealthy dietary habits were much higher in VDD group as compared to VDA group. Thus, it was found that there is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in young Pakistani females.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Hypovitaminosis has great influence on physical activity, anthropometric measurement and dietary intake of an individual.</p> Mareeha sheikh, Nazish Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/174 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of nicotine dependence among adults in Karachi, Pakistan http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/179 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;World Health Organization states that smoking is presently the major reason for the death of one in every ten adults worldwide. The most astounding commonness of smoking is found more in gatherings of young adults and falls consistently in more seasoned age populace. Experimentation of smoking is usually seen during adolescence, but sufficient understanding of factors analogous to early initiation remains indescribable. Dependence is a conduct in which a person or an individual has blunt control with destructive repercussion. A number of reasons contribute in continuation of this dependence property, the majority of which include friends and social circle.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;The focus of the research study is to get into account the ramification, extensiveness and reasons behind smoking in specifically young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted; data were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. A total of 153 university students were included with a response rate of 100%, having to mean age 22 ± 2 .14 years. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 20 and Microsoft Excel 2013.Cross-tabulation was done using Chi-square test and one sample t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The study results indicate that majority of the subjects started smoking between the age group of 17 -20 years, under the influence of their social gatherings, mostly due to friend circle, while the other reasons may include family, stress, and anxiety. 67.2% smoke cigarette along with their friends while 26.4% of the respondents were habitual of smoking alone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;There are many factors which influence the rate of nicotine dependence among students, the majority of which includes the absence of medical guidance, lack of will, family and friends habits and withdrawal effects.</p> Adnan Zia Shamsi, Sumbul Tasneem, Iqra Haider, Mah Rukh Aslam, Humera Sarwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/179 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Biofortified High Zinc Wheat: The Traditional Staple Dietary Food to Address Malnutrition in Pakistan http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/175 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>The footprints of zinc dietary nutrient deficiency are resulting in a widespread burden of stunting, wasting and underweight in children under five years, and reproductive development in women over a population of 100 million in Pakistan. The zinc malnutrition could be addressed by consumption of biofortified high zinc wheat flour, a staple food, in complemented with food supplementation, food diversification and food fortification interventions in the country.&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>This evidence-based research publication focused on micronutrients malnutrition on human health and capital. Literature was taken from last 20 years papers published in several peers reviewed scientific journals. Papers regarding malnutrition were mainly focused.&nbsp; The primary data was collected from R&amp;D institutions and secondary data from Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2011. Various sites, viz.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.harvestplus.org/">www.harvestplus.org</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ifpri.org/">www.ifpri.org</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl">http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://data.unicef.org/">http://data.unicef.org:</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="http://www.fao.org/">www.fao.org</a>:&nbsp;<a href="http://wholibdoc.who.int/publications">http://wholibdoc.who.int/publications</a>&nbsp; were also visited.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;In Pakistan, the recently released biofortified high zinc wheat variety “Zincol-2016” had a higher quantum of 37 mg Zn kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;compared to 25.0 mg Zn kg<sup>-1&nbsp;</sup>in grain portion in other commercially grown wheat varieties. Upon consuming biofortified wheat flour, zinc concentration increased from 681.3 to 792.3 µg L<sup>-1&nbsp;</sup>in human plasma. Furthermore, even an increase in dietary zinc by an amount of 2.0 mg Zn capita<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;day<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;may result in halving the endemic problem of zinc malnutrition, with a little change in food diversity pattern.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>The consumption of biofortified high zinc wheat variety “Zincol-2016” containing 37 mg Zn kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;compared to 25.0 mg Zn kg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;in conventional wheat varieties could result in alleviating zinc malnutrition to the extent of 50% in the malnourished population.&nbsp; Thereby, it is a potential complementary staple food with other contemporary interventions to address malnutrition in Pakistan.</p> Qadir Bux Baloch, Muhammad Yaqub Mujahid, Sibgha Noreen, Muhammad Iqbal Makhdum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/175 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Reducing physical restraint use in critically ill patients http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/176 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Patients in critical care setting often encounter severe delirium and agitation putting them at risk of harm. So it has become a common trend to restraint patient physically in intensive care units. However, physical restraint has several adverse physical, psychological and ethical consequences. Awareness regarding significant risk associated with physical restraint, continuing education and skills stabilize the patient’s safety and potential complication regarding ethical and legal issues to physical restraint in critical care settings. This study aims to address if any alternatives have been tested regarding physical restraint to improve the patient care for critical care.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong>A search conducted using the PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar including physical restraint use in critical care setting from 1994 to 2017. Studies published in English were included whereas articles published in psychiatric care, children and outside the hospital were excluded. The keywords used were critical care, critically ill, ICU patient safety and physical restraint. The Boolean phrases were used to clarify the quality of search results: ‘‘physical restraint &amp; critical care,’’ ‘‘physical restraint &amp; critically ill’’ ‘‘physical restraint &amp; ICU,’’ physical restraint &amp; patient safety.’’ Additionally, reference lists of selected papers were then evaluated further.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Enhanced knowledge, focused education and continuing training to improve skills in using restraint alternatives, awareness of the risk, early identification, conduct proper institutional policies and guidelines, and proactive intervention is the significant measures in alleviating physical restraint use in critical care settings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>A restraint-free environment not only promotes patient safety but also ensure greater caregivers’ job satisfaction reducing ethical issues.</p> Sona Duwadi, Birendra Singh Budal, Zhao Qing Hua ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/176 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Oral flora: Protection or destruction of dental tissue http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/177 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Oral cavity contains heterogenous environment which provides different niches in different environment present in a symbiotic relation. Normal oral flora when getting favorable environment gets attached to the tooth surface. Alteration in this mutualistic association transforms into diseased condition. The oral cavity begins to harbor microflora immediately after birth. Oral cavity harbors about 20 phyla and more than 700 species. The objective of this study is to determine the origin of the microorganisms responsible for dental diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;PUBMED database was searched for the English articles published with the combinations of following search terms: normal oral bacteria, oral bacteria, oral microbiome, dental caries, tooth caries, endodontic infection, and recurrent pulpal infection. Abstracts and also full text was revised to identify the suitable papers that describe the microbiological association of dental diseases which were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Nosocomial infection has found to be associated with persistent endodontic infection. Thus, proper sterilization and change of instruments and gloves after each procedure for every root canal instrumentation are mandatory to provide clean sterile preparation of the canal. Also, persistent/secondary intraradicular infection associated with Actinomyces species and P. propionicum is treated with surgical procedure only. Therefore bacteriological analysis of the canal helps to determine the efficacy of the endodontic treatment in primary infection, chances of secondary or persistent endodontic infection, and requirement of surgical treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Dental diseases are mainly associated with the virulence of different microorganisms present in the oral cavity. After the initiation of disease, exogenous bacteria are attracted to the site. Thus maintenance of proper oral hygiene prevents the transformation of normal flora to a diseased state. If the disease is diagnosed early and treated, it prevents the life-threatening condition.</p> Merina Shakya, Pujan Kranti Kayastha, Huang Jiao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/177 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Sports Pharmacy as an emerging health science field; A perspective on the global and national scope http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/178 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Sports Pharmacy is an emerging field globally that has developed from in connection with health, economic and social sectors. The main reason of its importance has been taken into account for research and implementation in the prevention of doping, delivery systems, compounding medications and dietary supplements. Though there is a dire need of developing f sports Pharmacy as a separate field in Pakistan and to address hindrances in its progress.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;A short communication of 20 years i.e. 1998-2018. Databases used are Google Scholar, PubMed, Research gate, Scopus, The Nation news, BBC news.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The significant highlights include that there is a usual partaking of the populace in sport and exercise at personal and professional levels and at every level, there is a need for advice about general healthcare and associated therapies for better performance and wellbeing. It is also identified that there is a growing need for specialist pharmacists in the area of sport and exercise in order to fulfill this valuable healthcare role. These specialists may be described as sports pharmacist’s development of Sports pharmacy in Pakistan. Prevention of doping worldwide reduced significantly with the help of pharmacist expertise.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sports pharmacy can be helpful in changing some healthcare aspects regarding sports worldwide. For the development of sports pharmacy in Pakistan, serious arrangements need to be taken.</p> Nida Khan, Shamoon Noushad, Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/178 Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000