International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR <p>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p>IJEHSR&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;IJEHSR is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for Eastern Mediterranean Region.</p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2307-3748 <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/CopyrightNotice">Copyright Notice</a></p> Where Drug Shelf Life is Valid but Performance Life Crosses http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/92 <p>The properties and life of flower may not be equal when it stays on tree comparable to when it is plucked. It is heavily impacted by the influence of environment and disassociation from its origin. The degree of impact varies with the type and kind of flower and environmental conditions. The same is with protein when used as a drug. It's not easy but sometimes so complex to understand because protein molecule likes to live in its system. As soon as it is removed from its original biological system (plucked like flower) it by default inclines towards coagulation, agglomeration, precipitation or denatures and thus lose its activity as it was inside its original system.</p> Obaid Ali Roohi B. Obaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 01 03 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i1.2020.01-03 The surgical intervention of thoracic aortic aneurysm among octogenarians and over: A Single center study http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/311 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a minimally invasive&nbsp;procedure&nbsp;to&nbsp;repair&nbsp;the major blood vessel in the body i.e. aorta. This minimally invasive approach is considered as a better option in comparison to the open-heart surgery by among octogenarians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the trends of postoperative complications among octogenarians and nonagenarians with arch, descending, or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This interventional, single center study initially included a total of 329 consecutive patients with arch, descending, or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. The study was conducted at Matsubara Tokushukai Hospital, Japan between May 2005 to November 2018. Of the total, 129 patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. 32 patients were excluded as they didn’t provide consent for the surgical intervention and preferred conservative medical treatment only. While the remaining 97 patients had operative indications, 64 of these were treated with TEVAR (SG group) and 33 were treated with open surgery (OS group). Early and late outcomes and the relation with bedridden status were examined retrospectively. Data was analyzed using JMP 9.0 software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the enrolled patients 49.5% were males and 50.5% were females. Decreased complications were observed among the patients of SG group as compared to the OS group. The highest mortality 69% was noted among the group treated with medical therapy alone with the confidence of interval of 95%. Furthermore, most of the patients in the OS group developed a complication of cerebral infarction and also needed tracheotomy during long-term hospital stay. Moreover, deaths occurring in bedridden patients were more common in the OS group than the SG group respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that SG is a better therapeutic approach as compared to the OS and the conservative therapy alone.</p> Masato Furui Shoji Sakaguchi Kunwar Muhammad Aqeel Akhtar Muhammad Imran Bunpachi Kakii Gaku Uchino Mai Asanuma Takeshi Yoshida ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 04 12 10.29052/IJEHSR.v8.i1.2020.04-12 Incidence and clinicohematological profile of lymphomas in Southern Punjab Pakistan http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/438 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lymphomas are ranked as the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Endorsing a significant impact on the health sector among the developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of the current study was to estimate the burden and clinicopathological features of lymphomas in one of the major referral centers in Southern Punjab Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pathology department of Nishtar Medical University, Multan January 2016 to August 2019<strong>. </strong>A total of 74 patients both male and females of all age groups with diagnosed lymphoma were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made on morphology and immunohistochemistry of lymph node and cases with complete immunohistochemical workup were included and those without immunohistochemical panel were excluded from the study. Baseline tests were performed and bone marrow specimens were extracted from all cases. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of the total, 22.6% patients had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 77.4% had Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) was the most frequent histology (94%) among HL patients while Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the commonest B cell NHL (29.3%) and T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) was found to be the most common T cell variant (5.3%). B symptoms, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were documented in 96%, 42.7% and 25.3% patients respectively. Moreover, the disease was nodal in 65% cases and extranodal presentation was observed in 35% of the cases. Cervical node (lymph node) was involved in 25.3% of the cases while bone marrow was common among 53.3% cases. The patterns of bone marrow infiltration were para trabecular (24.3%), diffuse (22.5%), interstitial (1.8%) and mixed pattern (3.75%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lymphomas are relatively more common among younger population in Pakistan. NHLs constitute more than 2/3<sup>rd</sup> of all lymphomas with DLBCL as the commonest histology. Stage IV disease as evidenced by bone marrow infiltration is seen in more than half of our patients.</p> Umera Saleem Muhammad Asif Naveed Maria Batool Khadija Nadeem Muhammad Samiullah Sohail Safdar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 13 20 10.29052/IJEHSR.v8.i1.2020.13-20 Microbial Flora on the White Coats of Dental staff, Karachi http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/304 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Wearing a white coat is recognized as a crucial part of medical practice. The definite use of white coats and how frequently they are reformed varies significantly among individual doctors and their specialties. There has always been some worry that white coats, like nurses’ uniforms and other hospital garments, may essentially play a part in spreading pathogenic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms through the white coats of dental staff.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted at Karachi Medical and Dental College (KMDC) from 4<sup>th</sup> August to 4<sup>th</sup> October 2019. 200 white coats samples were collected and sent to the KMDC laboratory. Samples were cultured on blood agar and MacConkeys' agar. SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze the data and chi-square and Fisher exact test were applied for significance testing.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>It was noted that most 150(75%) of the respondents washed their coats only once a week and 18(9%) had the habit of exchanging aprons. On the basis of self-grading, majority 158(79%) of the aprons were dirty, spillage was observed on 111(55.5%) aprons and 152(76%) of healthcare professionals did not remove lab coats while dining. Dental health professionals mostly kept their aprons on tables and about 53% of microorganisms were found in the upper region of aprons. The Gram-positive organisms were isolated as predominant ones from the samples obtained from the aprons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>White coats and aprons serve as an important source of cross infection. Guidelines should be formulated for their effective cleaning, washing and appropriate handling.&nbsp;</p> Sana Iqbal Sufyan Ahmed Ayesha Aslam Mehwash Kashif Irfan Khan Nabeel Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 21 27 10.29052/IJEHSR.v8.i1.2020.21-27 Research awareness among dental undergraduates; A cross-sectional study conducted at Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/440 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Research is an integral part of the academic curriculum; its role must be appreciated in all health and medical field. The current study was planned in order to evaluate the interest of dental students towards research and their awareness.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December 2018 at Karachi Medical and Dental College (KMDC). A total of 200 bachelors of dental surgery (BDS) students were recruited as per the inclusion criteria. Non-consenting students were excluded from the study. Data regarding research understanding and awareness was collected and analyzed using SPSS Version 17.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Majority of the study participants were female 89% and males 11%, females were in high proportion among all professional years. i.e. 27%, 21%, 25.5% &amp; 15.5% from 1<sup>st</sup> year to 4<sup>th</sup> year respectively. Mostly the&nbsp; 2<sup>nd</sup> &amp; 3<sup>rd&nbsp;</sup> year students were aware of the research needs 97.7% and 100%. The research interest was most among the students of the initial years while among 4<sup>th</sup> years students it was comparatively less i.e. 78.3%. All of the students from 1<sup>st</sup> year to 3<sup>rd</sup> responded in favor of research usefulness in career while only 67.5% of the final year students were lacking this basic knowledge. Moreover, the benefits of research were well known among students of all years with the highest understanding among the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> year (97.7% and 94.4%). &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is evident from the study results that the enrolled dental students were aware of research significance, its professional importance and showed positivity towards research interest. The inclusion and implementation of research among dental students is essential for promoting research culture in medical students.</p> Mehwash Kashif Uzma Zareef Mehreen Aftab Sadia Irfan Khan Afifia Abul Barakat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 28 33 10.29052/IJEHSR.v8.i1.2020.28-33 Evaluating nurses’ knowledge regarding dosage calculation at Civil Hospital, Karachi http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/299 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Appropriate therapeutic care and management is primarily based on the knowledge of dosage calculation and associated skills. The objective of this study was to determine the awareness of staff nurses working in a tertiary care hospital regarding the dose calculation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A pre-and post-test interventional study was conducted at a Civil Hospital, Karachi over a sample of 50 staff nurses working in different departments. The data was collected using an assessment tool containing 20 items to evaluate the drug dosage calculation skills and knowledge of the staff nurses. The assessment test was taken once initially after enrollment and then an extensive interventional training regarding the dosage calculation was provided to each nurse which was followed by a post intervention assessment test. The results were then rated on the basis of knowledge scores both before and after intervention i.e. 1-5 (poor), 6-10 (satisfactory), 11-15 (good) and 16-20 (excellent). Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 50 nurses participated in this study, of which 44% were males and 56% were females. The nurses had better knowledge both pre &amp; post-test regarding the intravenous medication as compared to the oral for e.g. the nurses of neurosurgery department obtained a mean pre-test score of 4.2±0.8 (oral) and 10.1±2.4 (Intravenous), while the mean post -test were 4.7±0.7 (oral) and 14.6±0.7 (Intravenous). Another point of concern was the dosage calculation in pediatrics department was compromised both for oral and intravenous 2.8±1.7 (pre-oral) and 6.5±1.2 (post-intravenous) increased to 4.6±0.7(post-oral) and 13.6±1.8 (post-intravenous). Moreover, 18% of nurses had poor knowledge of dosage calculation as rated on the pre-test assessment while based on the post-test score none of the nurses had poor knowledge, majority was labeled as having improved knowledge of dosage calculation after interventional training.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, the study reveals that the majority of the staff nurses lack adequate knowledge and skills related to drug dosage calculations. There is a dire need for in-service education to enhance the knowledge and skills of staff nurses related to drug dosage calculations. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abdul Rahim Mangrio Pir Bux Jokhio Saif Ullah Mahar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 34 40 10.29052/IJEHSR.v8.i1.2020.34-40 Young adults Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/434 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is referred to as the gold standard therapeutic modality for treating coronary artery disease (CAD) among both old or young patients. hypertension, diabetes, Increased BMI and obesity, etc. are among the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the current study was to highlight the increasing rate of CAD and associated CABG surgery among young adults and to identify the potential risk factors associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this hospital based observational study, CAD patients ≤40 years of age admitted to the cardiac surgery department of a leading cardiac center for CABG surgery were included in the study. The study continued from 5<sup>th</sup> January 2018 to 21<sup>st</sup> August 2019 and the data of 184 patients who underwent CABG was collected during this time period. The details regarding patients' age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the time of initial examination. Moreover, medical records, familial history and risk profile were also monitored. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 184 CAD patients who underwent CABG surgery were included in the study and 114(62%) of them were males and 70(38%) were females. The age range was 25 to 40 years with the mean age of 36.5±3.17 years. The risk profile displayed that increased BMI was the major contributor for cardiovascular disease i.e. 38% patients were overweight, 10.9% were in Obese I category and 5.97% were in obese II category. Following obesity, hypertension (49.5%), diabetes (29.9%) and dysfunctional lipids (14.7%) were common comorbid conditions. While smoking and positive familial history also contributed to the risk ratio. It was observed that hypertension, diabetic history was more among overweight and obese individuals (p=0.029 &amp; 0.666).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Young CAD patients ≤40 years of age display decreased risk and adverse outcomes as compared to the older counterparts but the clinical pattern of presentation is different and hence require different strategic attention.</p> Muhammad Arif Yusra Saleem Stefan Riaz Mahapara . Muhammad Imran Atif Sharjeel Shujjaat Ali Khan Ghufran Ullah Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-01 2020-03-01 8 1 41 46