International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) <p><strong>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)</strong>&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p><strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for the Eastern Mediterranean Region.&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;editorial board members are working in diverse fields of health care in countries like&nbsp;<strong>Pakistan, Canada, Australia, United States of America, China, India, Oman,&nbsp;Saudi&nbsp;Arabia,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Ethiopia.</strong></p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2307-3748 <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="">Copyright Notice</a></p> COVID-19 Pandemic: Fear, Anxiety and our Mental Health <p>As the saying goes: history repeats itself but for those who fail to learn lessons from it, they are often the worst off when the boomerang returns to strike them at the back. The 1918 influenza pandemic, caused by H1N1 virus was perhaps the worst that our humanity had yet encountered. It’s origin debatable (avian or otherwise), it infected over 500 Million people across the globe within a year, and wiped out almost 50 Million humans (40% world population) from the face of the earth.</p> Naweed I. Syed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 47 49 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.47-49 Animal Magnetism; A Mesmerizing Yet Controversial Past of Healing Sciences <p><strong>Background:</strong> Animal magnetism gained popularity in the 18th century specifically among Europeans and the people from the United States. The Mesmer’s theory on animal magnetism emphasized the presence of invisible natural force in all living organisms i.e. these natural forces exists as magnetic fluid whose abnormal flow was somehow linked to all diseased conditions.</p> <p><br><strong>Methodology:</strong> The article tracks the history and the modern concept of animal magnetism. The literature was searched using the terms Mesmerism, Animal Magnetism, Healing, and French trials, etc. via Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and Scopus.</p> <p><br><strong>Results:</strong> Mesmer drew the idea in line with scientific advances involving forces; gravity, electricity, and magnetism, etc. Although the magnetic fluid component presumed by his theory didn’t work out so well. But his theory marked the beginnings of some very factual and clinically beneficial aspects like hypnosis and healing outcomes.</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, the popular report which was chaired by Franklin, was the main deliberate investigation of what we currently know as hypnosis. While modern-day hypnosis has earned the approval because its effects have been statistically proven in several controlled trials.</p> Shamoon Noushad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 50 55 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.50-55 Mental Health Outcomes and Coping Strategies Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) <p><strong>Background:</strong> The recent pandemic condition developed from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, have a profound effect on almost all the aspects of society. This outbreak has greatly compromised both the mental and physical health of the frontline healthcare workers and supporting hospital staff since they are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals with COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the psychological impacts and factors causing stress among the healthcare workers &amp; supporting hospital staff during the COVID-19 outbreak and also to identify the preferred coping strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted from 1st to 30th February 2020. The sample comprised of frontline healthcare workers &amp; hospital staff providing supporting services like laboratory personnel &amp; administrative workers. The data was collected using a structured self-administered online questionnaire focusing on the impacts of COVID-19, factors causing stress and the coping strategies used by frontline medical workers to deal with the psychological impacts of such pandemics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 127 frontline medical workers completed the survey. The findings from the present study suggested that frontline healthcare workers &amp; hospital staff experience both psychological as well as emotional impacts due to COVID-19. The mean Impact of Event Scale (IES) score was 24.44±19.41 indicating partial PTSD or at least a few symptoms of PTSD. The major factor causing stress among these health workers was their fear of inflicting COVID-19 on family (33.1%). Among the coping strategies, emotion-focused coping techniques and positive thinking were found to be the most preferred strategies among the frontline medical workers and hospital staff in coping stress associated with the COVID-19 outbreak.</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study emphasizes the significance of the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among healthcare workers and the importance of psychiatric help for these long-term traumatic influences.</p> Stephen Riaz Yusra Saleem Hina Hazrat Faiza Ahmed Ujala Sajid Syed Faizan Qadri Shakeel Rufan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 56 66 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.56-66 Retrospective analysis of Quality of Life for patients received Prosthetic limbs to overcome their Physical Disability <p><strong>Background:</strong> Quality of life (QoL) is affected by physical and psychosocial parameters after amputation. Aims of Person with amputations are to reintegrate in community and improved mobility, optimum quality of life should be among the top priorities of prosthetic and rehabilitation center. The purpose of the study was to retrospectively assess the QoL of the patient receiving artificial limbs to overcome their physical disability.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 lower limb prosthetic users; the study duration was four months. Data were collected using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instruments (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. SPSS Version 16.0 was used for statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare domain QoL score.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 120 respondents, 66(55%) were early prosthetic users and 54(45%) were late prosthetic users. 61(50.8%) lower limb amputees were availing rehabilitative services and 44(36.7%) were employed. Male participant's mean scores were significantly higher in all domains of QoL as compared to females. There was a significant mean difference among male and female patients concerning physical health (p=0.003), psychological health (p=0.027), social relationship (p=0.005) and environment (p=0.000). There were significant differences in the overall QoL domain and the above-mentioned aspects (p&lt;0.05) among the enrolled patients with different working statuses. There was a significant difference in the environment and overall QoL scored in different age group participants.</p> <p><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the study showed that gender, working status and age have significant influences on the QoL of the patients who received Prosthetic limbs to overcome their Physical Disability.</p> Maryam Moula Bakhsh Mehwish Farukh Akram Shareef Nabila Somroo Naila Jabeen Muhammad Imran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 67 74 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.67-74 Comparison of single-stage and two-stage ERCP Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gallbladder surgeries are among the commonest major abdominal operations and to continuously improve the procedure many variants have developed that need evidence-based comparison in terms of frequency common bile duct (CBD) clearance, the mean operative time and hospital stay, and rate of adverse outcomes (post-operative pancreatitis). Through this study, we aimed to compare the surgical outcome of single-stage Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) with LC in comparison to two-stage ERCP.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This prospective study was conducted on a sample of 190 diagnosed patients (chosen via non-probability consecutive sampling) of cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis, aged between 20 to 70 years who were scheduled to undergo surgery at the Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi. The patients were divided into two equal groups (Group A: Single-stage ERCP &amp; LC, and Group B: Two-stage ERCP followed by interval LC). After taking written informed consent, data pertaining to surgical outcome were recorded onto a pre-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS Version 23.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The demographic and clinical characteristics of both the groups were similar and so were the success rates. Adverse events free and positive outcomes were reported in 95.79% and 90.53% of the patients in groups A and B respectively. Post-operative pancreatitis was reported more often among the patients of group B. The length of hospital stay and costs were lower among Group A patients despite the longer operative times in this group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients in group A yield better surgical outcomes, giving single-stage ERCP &amp; LC the edge over two-stage ERCP followed by interval LC. Thus, single-stage ERCP &amp; LC is recommended as the method of choice.</p> Fatima Zehra Khan Mir Arsalan Ali Shafiq Ur Rehman Syed Mustafa Ali Shah Maheen Nisar Zohaib Jawed Abubaker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 75 80 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.75-80 An Oral Mucocele on Lower Lip; A Case Report & Literature Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Oral mucocele is considered to be a common benign lesion of the oral cavity characterized by fluctuant, painless and is distinct in two different forms, i.e. extravasations and retention. Trauma to mucus membrane or salivary gland is the most common etiologic factor.</p> <p><strong>Case-Presentation:</strong> A 27-year-old female patient presented at the dental Out-patient Department (OPD) in our institute with the complaint of a swelling on the right side of her lower lip for the last three months.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results:</strong> Based on the history &amp; clinical examination, the diagnosis of oral mucocele was concluded. The treatment plan was discussed with the patient in which she was informed about the chairside surgical removal of the tissue under local anesthesia. On the 10th day of the surgery, sutures were removed, the scar was irrigated with saline and the usual check-up was performed which revealed no recurrence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Oral mucocele is a benign lesion, which can be managed with surgical excision under unremarkable prognosis.</p> Ahsan Inayat Syed Zahid Hassan Ayesha Aziz Farzana Hassan Syeda Javeria Ikram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 81 85 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.81-85 Epigenetic Modifications lead towards Neurodegeneration <p><strong>Background:</strong> The foremost factor involved in Neurodegeneration is the impact of epigenetic modifications; through its nature to epigenetically mark the neuron-associated genes, also, by affecting cognitive functions and damaging neurons that promote mutations. Due to these changes in the genes; neurodegenerative diseases are developed. This review will assess epigenetic modifications that switch “on” &amp; “off” the genes associated with neurons that lead towards neurodegeneration in humans.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This systematic review is based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to conduct a search strategy and for the preparation of the manuscript. A search engine (PubMed) was used and the article reference list was searched for relevant primary research articles. 100 out of 22278 studies dated from January/2000 to February/2019 met the inclusion criteria. Two quality assessments were piloted and included: (1) Authors evaluation and (2) Risk of bias.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Quality of interventions provided was rated “good”, Risk of bias in studies was rated “fair” and the team of authors approved included papers. Furthermore, 13 out of 100 studies critical appraisal analysis demonstrated the relationship between epigenetic alterations and neurodegeneration and the rest of the studies described neuro-epigenetics, epigenetic remodeling and epigenetic mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Exogenous influence like aviation stress or co-factors, such as nutrition and physical stress plays a major role in silencing the “gene switching” proteins of epigenetic marks and influences the onset and progression of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, intervention in epigenetics might help promote brain health.</p> Anna Askari Shamoon Noushad Sadaf Ahmed Faizan Mirza Syed A. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 8 2 86 108 10.29052/JEHSR.v8.i2.2020.86-108