International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) <p><strong>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)</strong>&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p><strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for the Eastern Mediterranean Region.&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;editorial board members are working in diverse fields of health care in countries like&nbsp;<strong>Pakistan, Canada, Australia, United States of America, China, India, Oman,&nbsp;Saudi&nbsp;Arabia,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Ethiopia.</strong></p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2307-3748 <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="">Copyright Notice</a></p> Bacterial load determination of poultry feed with seasonality effect in Karachi, Pakistan. <p><strong>Background: </strong>The escalating rate of food-borne diseases via poultry feeds necessitates the characterization of the pathogens to reduce the health risk factor for humans and animals. The poultry feed microbial analysis help to control food-borne illness. In addition, the knowledge about seasonal effects on microbial growth helps the manufacturers to take precautionary measures in alarming months to maintain the standard quality of poultry feed.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study was designed to identify and enumerate bacteria and their seasonal variation. Total feed samples (n=204) were evaluated through traditional culture techniques, microscopic inspection, and biochemical properties. However, bacterial load was determined by using the total viable count.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>As a result, five genera, including Salmonella enterica (39.05%), Escherichia coli (22.48%), Bacillus subtilis (18.34%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.24%), and Streptococcus sp (8.87%), were isolated. The proportion of occurrence of the bacterial load was lowest in December-February (64.4%) and highest in June-August (96.2%). Whereas in September-November was (87.6%) and March-May (77.5%). On the whole, the total percentage of positive samples was 82.8%. Statistical analysis revealed that (9.9×10-8 cfu/g) was the highest viable bacterial count recorded from June to August. The presence of food-borne pathogens, especially S.enterica and E.coli, is bothersome. Moreover, June to August is considered the most troubling month due to the elevated level of contamination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>To evade microbial contamination, the microbiological security rules must be followed throughout the process of formulation and storage period, especially in sensitive hot and humid months of June to August. Also, standard inspection should be taken to control the dissemination of food-borne illness.</p> Shajeela Iram Tabinda Khawaja Mehmood ul Hassan Muhammad Jawad Khan Tanveer Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 Histomorphometric features of hepatic toxicity caused by carbamazepine and its amelioration with vitamin E. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Carbamazepine, a commonly prescribed anti-epileptic drug, is potentially hepatotoxic. This laboratory-based experimental study was designed to observe the toxicity of Carbamazepine and the ameliorative effects of Vitamin E on liver tissue.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 54 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was the control; group B was given oral Carbamazepine, and group C was given Carbamazepine with Vitamin E daily for 6 weeks. At the end of the study period, animals were sacrificed, their liver was preserved, and tissue was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean final body weights of Carbamazepine treated group B (147.27 ± 13.72 gm) and Carbamazepine + Vitamin E protected group C (164.43 ± 10.73 gm) were decreased significantly in comparison to control A (194.03 ± 14.87 gm). Mean absolute and relative liver weights were increased significantly in groups B &amp; C as compared to group A. Histological examination of liver in group B showed disturbed architecture of hepatic lobules including congested central vein, dilated sinusoids, pyknotic nuclei, steatosis, portal vein dilatation, hemorrhages, and mononuclear infiltration in the portal triad and around the central vein. These changes were reduced in group C. Micrometry confirmed the histological findings, with a significant decrease in mean hepatic cell count and mean hepatocyte nuclear diameter of group B as compared to control group A (6.00 ± 1.41 &amp; 5.62 ± 0.69 µm respectively), and a significant increase in mean hepatocyte diameter of group B in comparison to group A (17.44 ± 1.29 µm).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that Carbamazepine caused hepatotoxicity while Vitamin E was helpful in its amelioration.</p> Asma Basharat Ali Nadia Younus Sahrish Mukhtar Hina Abrar Tayyaba Kazmi Lubna Faisal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 Combined accuracy of Procalcitonin and Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) in predicting 3-days in-hospital mortality in suspected sepsis. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early identification of sepsis is important for initiating appropriate treatment for decreasing the risk of in-hospital mortality. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) and quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) in predicting 3-days in-hospital mortality in suspected sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cohort study was conducted at the emergency department of Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi. One-hundred and thirty-two suspected cases of sepsis having age 18-75 years were selected through convenience sampling. PCT level and qSOFA score were obtained for predicting 3-days in-hospital mortality.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the study patient, 50.8% were male, and 49.2% were female, with a mean age of 53.7 ± 18.3 years. The mean qSOFA score was 1.8 ± 0.5, and the mean PCT level was 2.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml. The combined QSOFA and PCT 3-days in-hospital mortality prediction was 31.1%, while the actual mortality rate was 28.0%. The combined qSOFA score and PCT level sensitivity was 62.2%, specificity 81.1%, positive predicted value 56.1%, negative predicted value 84.7%, and diagnostic accuracy 75.8%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The combined use of QSOFA and PCT improves the 3-day in-hospital mortality prediction in suspected cases of sepsis.</p> Tauseef Ali Memon Saman Butt Imtiaz Khalid Nawaf Dehrab Noor Afsheen Maryam Jamil Ehsan Ulhaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 Insulin Resistance in young obese females with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present study intends to determine the comparative insulin resistance (IR) among young obese females with and without&nbsp;polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> During this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 300 young obese females were evaluated for the presence of PCOS and insulin resistance. Based on the PCOs diagnosis, 250 obese PCOs females were included in group 1, and group 2 comprised 50 obese non-PCOs females. With the demographic details, patients' diabetic and lipid profiles were also evaluated, and the difference in the inference between the groups was drawn using SPSS version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It is to note that more than 90% of the young obese PCOs females were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while none of the obese non-PCOs females had diabetes. Furthermore, the HOMA-IR score was significantly high among young obese females diagnosed with PCOs (16.30 ± 1.62) as compared to those without PCOs (3.47 ± 0.37) (p&lt;0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded from the study results that young obese females with PCOS are more prone to develop insulin resistance than those without PCOs.</p> Maheen Shehzad Naila Abdul Sattar Nadia Ishaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 Oxidative stress level among females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with & without Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. <p><strong>Background:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The present study aimed to evaluate the level of oxidative stress by measuring the plasma concentration of oxidants in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs).</span></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> A total of 500 diabetic patients between 25 to 45 years of age were divided into two groups; group 1 included 250 T2DM patients with PCOs, and 250 T2DM patients without PCOs were included in group 2. In addition to the demographic and clinical parameters, antioxidants include Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Catalase (CAT), Total antioxidant capacity analyte (TAC), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH) was also measured.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> No significant difference in the level of antioxidants; SOD and MDA was observed between the diabetic females with and without PCOs (p&gt;0.05). However, Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) was significantly low in T2DM patients with PCOs as compared to those without PCOs (p&lt;0.05). Surprisingly, the mean catalase levels were significantly high among T2DM females with PCOs (3.6 ± 0 .5 U/g of Hb) than those without PCOs (3.4 ± 0.7 U/g of Hb; p&lt;0.001).</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> It is suggested that both T2DM and PCOs are linked to a high level of oxidative stress status, but the high catalase level among diabetic PCOs females is alarming and needs to be further studied. Thus, these changes accentuate the need for lifestyle modifications.</span></p> Naila Abdul Sattar Sumera Shaheen Maheen Shehzad Nadia Ishaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 Leiomyosarcoma of the Superficial Femoral vein – A rare tumor at an unusual site. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The leiomyosarcomas most commonly arise from smooth muscles of the uterus and gastrointestinal tract. The vascular origin of the leiomyosarcoma is very rare; however, veins are more frequently affected in such cases.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A 23-year-old boy presents with left thigh painless swelling. Subsequently, he underwent multimodality radiological examinations, which showed left superficial femoral vein mass, which later on histopathological evaluation came out to be grade III leiomyosarcoma of the superficial femoral vein.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results:</strong> The patient was given chemotherapy, but unfortunately, after three cycles of chemotherapy patient developed pulmonary metastases. Currently, the patient is under palliative treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Primary vascular leiomyosarcomas are very rare entities. The knowledge of these rare tumors is essential for the reporting radiologists and clinicians to properly diagnose these aggressive tumors to prevent any delays in the management.</p> Javaria Aleem Pir Abdul Ahad Aziz Qureshi Kashif Siddique Amna Babar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-18 2021-12-18 Endoscopic management of intravesical foreign body: A challenging condition. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Unusual genitourinary activity has been described for several centuries and is characterized by the deposition of foreign objects in the genitalia. The most common cause is sexual stimulation, but psychiatric disorders and intoxication are also associated. Management involves the retrieval of foreign bodies and the evaluation of psychosocial factors. This study intends to present a 'hair pin' case as a foreign body in the bladder.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A 25-year-old female presented to the urology outpatient clinic in early pregnancy with a history of manually inserting hairpin into the urinary bladder through her urethra four years back. She lost to follow up during pregnancy and then presented again after C-section. A plain abdominal film of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) confirmed the location of the hairpin and large stone around it in the urinary bladder.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The patient underwent endoscopic removal of foreign body and stone. At cystoscopy urethra was normal, but in the urinary bladder, there was a hairpin with stone formation at its proximal end, and distal portion of the hairpin was embedded in the bladder neck. The hairpin was pushed back in the bladder to separate from the bladder neck, followed by stone fragmentation using a stone punch. After complete removal of stones, the hairpin was aligned in the line of the urethra and removed with the help of forceps.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Suitable method for removing intravesical foreign bodies depends on the nature of the foreign body and available expertise. Most intravesical foreign bodies can be retrieved with endoscopic techniques without resorting to open surgery.</p> Muhammad Farhan Malik Aftab Khurram Sharif Muhammad Saad Faraz Ahmed Muhammad Jamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-10 2022-01-10