International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) <p><strong>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)</strong>&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p><strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for the Eastern Mediterranean Region.&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>&nbsp;editorial board members are working in diverse fields of health care in countries like&nbsp;<strong>Pakistan, Canada, Australia, United States of America, China, India, Oman,&nbsp;Saudi&nbsp;Arabia,&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;Ethiopia.</strong></p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2307-3748 <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="">Copyright Notice</a></p> Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances producing lactic acid bacteria from indigenous food samples. <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally found in nutrient-rich environments such as milk, dairy products, meat, vegetables, and fruits. The functions of LAB depend upon the sufficient number of bacteria being available in the intestines, and the actions of these bacteria are generally species and strain-specific. The challenges encountered in identifying and classifying lactic acid bacteria have complicated the research process. Despite encountered challenges, various benefits of lactic acid bacteria have been identified. The current study aimed to isolate and characterize indigenous LAB bacteriocins producers from local food sources using morphological, biochemical, and molecular methods.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;One thousand indigenous LAB were isolated and screened from local fresh and fermented foods in Karachi's retail markets for three years. 46 LAB isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against other LAB and non-LAB gram-positive bacteria in broth medium. Three of forty-six isolates were selected for further study of the nature and production of the inhibitory substance based on production in broth, bacteriocin nature of the substance, and relatively wide antibacterial spectrum.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The three indigenous LAB producers were identified as Lactococci based on microscopy, catalase, biochemical and molecular characterization. Bacteriocin of the isolate C130 was heat tolerant at 100°C and produced during the late logarithmic phase of growth. There is still a need for investigation to identify the role of LAB, which might help prevent certain chronic illnesses and infections. Most beneficial impacts are known in constipation, hypocholesterolemic effects, urogenital infections, and colon cancer. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> L. lactis C130 was found to be a thermostable bacteriocin producer with a fair antibacterial spectrum against various food spoilage.</p> Nayyar Mehmood Abdul Wahab Urooba Jamal Waseem Ahmed Mangi Syed Abdus Subhan Tanveer Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 Assessment of risk factors among female patients with various Acute Coronary Syndrome types presenting to Cardiology unit DHQ Kohat, Pakistan. <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is limited literature regarding the risk factors associated with acute coronary syndrome among female patients of the region, while none was previously reported from Kohat, Pakistan. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the risk factors among female patients with various types of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2021 to February 2022. A total of 500 female patients with ACS admitted to the Cardiology Unit at DHQ Kohat were enrolled, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The risk factors were determined with respect to ACS types. The patient's electrocardiography (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers were assessed, and blood samples were obtained to estimate lipid parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of enrolled ACS females was 54.20 ± 9.20 years. Of the total, 74.6% were diagnosed with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was present among 6.0% of the enrolled cases, and 19.4% had unstable angina. Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor (53.2%), followed by diabetes (51.4%). The studied risk factors mean age, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), past medical history, and family history of ACS were significantly different among the different ACS types (p&lt;0.05). &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, age, blood pressure, BMI, past medical history (presence of diabetes and hypertension), and family history of ACS among female patients are significantly associated with various ACS types.</p> Qaisar Ali Khan Noman Khan Arif Mumtaz Naseer Ahmad Nowshad Asim Asmat Shaheen Ameena Arif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 Frequency of H. pylori in liver cirrhosis patients with overt Hepatic encephalopathy at tertiary care hospital, Karachi. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ammonia is detoxified in the liver, and hepatic insufficiency due to cirrhosis leads to raised ammonia, causing symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE). Studies proclaim that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) accelerate ammonia production. The study objective was to establish the frequency of H. pylori in liver cirrhosis patients with overt HE.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Unit-I Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from May to November 2018. Liver Cirrhosis patients between the ages of 31-60 years were selected via non-probability sampling. Patients of any sex suffering from liver cirrhosis for six months, as proved by ultrasound and overt HE diagnosed using West Haven Criteria, were included in the study. Stool samples were collected from patients in a sterile manner. Results of stool for H. pylori antigen were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 135 patients with Liver Cirrhosis with overt HE, 42 (31.1%) suffered from H. pylori infection while 93 (68.9%) patients did not. The mean age of patients was 44.14 ± 8.49 years. Stratification of the age of patients with H. pylori infection showed significant results (p=0.00). The mean disease duration was 4.72 ± 1.24 years. Stratification based on disease duration with H. pylori infection revealed significant results (p=0.00). Stratified findings based on Child-Pugh classification and H. pylori infection were insignificant (p=0.50).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study reveals there is less frequency of H. pylori infection amongst liver cirrhotic patients. However, amongst those infected, many had a longer duration of disease. Our study indicates more cases of H. pylori infection with increasing age of liver cirrhosis patients. Furthermore, the relation between H. pylori infection and the Child-Pugh classification indicates that overt HE may be attributed to factors other than H. pylori infection.</p> Shaista Ahmed Afshan Siddiqui Sadia Iqbal Rma Waqas Jamal Ara Aneela Altaf Kidwai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-Vaccine Is it giving a protection against SARS-CoV-2? <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 threatens the healthcare needs of many countries as the number of infections and mortalities continues to increase. This further becomes an urgent need for the development of effective therapy against COVID-19. In context with the ability of the BCG vaccine to reduce the incidence of respiratory tract infection in the human population, Moreover, it has been hypothesized that the BCG vaccine induces protection against SARS CoV-2 infection.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> BCG has been suggested to infer a wide degree of nonspecific protection against several pathogens, mainly by stimulating “trained immunity” in innate immune cells. Secondly, BCG has also been recognized to provide benefits in autoimmune diseases by inducing tolerogenicity. Being an acute inflammatory disease, COVID-19 requires a therapy that induces early priming of antiviral immune responses and regulates aberrant hyperactivity of innate-immune cells. Comparative molecular literature was searched using specific terms BCG. SARS CoV-2 Coronavirus via Google Scholar and PubMed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As studied, BCG is live attenuated tuberculosis (TB) vaccine-associated with induction of nonspecific cross-protection against unrelated infections. This cross-protection due to the memory-like response of innate immune cells (trained immunity) caused by epigenetic reprogramming by histone modification in regulatory elements of specific genes in monocytes seems to be responsible for protection against SARS CoV-2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, It has been suggested that BCG may induce trained immunity, in turn, infer protection against SARS-CoV-2. This review intends to describe BCG-related cross-protection and its acquisition of trained immunity.</p> Mehnaz Tanveer Syed A. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-01 2022-06-01 The Expression of Concern “Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of partially purified proteins/peptides of Yellow Scorpion Buthus sindicus against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobactor baumannii & Pseudomonas aeruginosa” [IJEHSR 9(2) (2021) 238-247] <p>This expression of concern related to the above-mentioned publication highlights the authorship dispute brought to our attention by third parties, which they further transformed into a data authorization claim against the first author (Corresponding Author).</p> <p>It was informed that third parties (Author’s Institution) formed a committee for evaluation, as per their inquiry the manuscript was submitted by the corresponding author without information to the other co-authors. Moreover, the committee has recommended the official retraction of the article due to an authorship claim by a co-supervisor who was not given due credit for his contribution to the work published.</p> <p>The authorship and data authorization issues were raised to the corresponding author and the institution involved for clarifications and investigations. The concern and this note will remain appended to the above-mentioned article, unless the Journal Ethical Committee, Author(s), and Third Party reach a suitable solution to the dispute and proof of misconduct.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sehrish Urooj Rafat Amin Zeba Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 00001