International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR <p>International journal of endorsing health science research (IJEHSR)&nbsp;aims to&nbsp;improve health care by providing the most recent research results&nbsp;leading to advancement in health science.</p> <p>IJEHSR&nbsp;is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally, it was founded in 2013 as a biannual journal, and converted into quarterly in 2015. &nbsp;IJEHSR is included in the journal list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) since 2014. This Journal is indexed by WHO Index Medicus (IMEMR) for Eastern Mediterranean Region.</p> <p>We would like to encourage you to submit your intellectual effort in&nbsp;IJEHSR, we consider manuscripts from all fields of health sciences.&nbsp;The journal publishes original research, reviews, clinical reports, case studies, legal and policy perspectives.</p> Advance Educational Institute and Research Center en-US International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2307-3748 <p>By submitting a manuscript in&nbsp;<strong>IJEHSR</strong>, the Author (Authors if a multi-authored paper) confirms all the clause of the <a href="http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/CopyrightNotice">Copyright Notice</a></p> Seroprevalence and awareness of hepatitis B infection among the students of Sindh university, Jamshoro. http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/426 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Approximately 500 million people are living with chronic viral hepatitis i.e. 1 in every 12 individuals is at risk of developing hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is among the top 10 infectious disease killers and the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and to assess the knowledge of associated risk factors among students.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The cross-sectional study continued for one year from January to December 2016 at University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Around 1658 undergraduate students between the age of 20 to 25 years were included in the study. Subjects demographic details, knowledge, awareness regarding the risk factors were inquired through a structured questionnaire. HBV was screened using Lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay. Recorded data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Out of 1658 students enrolled in the study, HBV was observed in 87(5.24%), the ratio of male infected students 78 (89%) was greater than female infected students 09(10%). Major reason behind increased exposure and silent incidence of this infectious disease was unawareness, 1110 (66.94%) students were unaware of the HBV risk factors. While roadside shaving among males and piercing among females were the major practices that further contribute to the HBV incidence rate.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results indicate that unawareness is the major factor precipitating HBV infection risk, further a few students aware of the risk were observed doing activities that contribute to disease incidence.</p> Abdul Qayoom Rakhshani Zulfiqar Laghari Sarfaraz Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 161 165 Effect of energy drink consumption on blood glucose level and clotting time; A comparative study on healthy male and female subjects http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/280 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The energy drink (ED) consumption rapidly increased by youngsters in recent years. It has a high concentration of sugar, caffeine, taurine and other stimulants that enhance the mental and physical activity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the comparative effects of taurine-based energy drinks on blood glucose (BG) level and Prothrombin time (PT) among healthy male and female subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional single center observational study was conducted from over a sample of 50 subjects between 18 to 25 years of age. The subjects were kept in two distinct groups as males and females and all assessments were made individually for both genders. Written informed consent was taken from each subject prior to enrolment in the study. As per the study protocol, the BG level (mg/dl) and PT (sec) were taken twice. Each subject was asked to drink 250 ml taurine based carbonated energy drink after taking the first recording of both (BG level and PT). And secondary records are taken 1 hour after the consumption of ED. The collected data was statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the study subjects was 22.34±2.3 years. It was seen that the post-test mean BG level significantly increased to 129.2±18.3 mg/dl (males) and 147.92±24.4 mg/dl (females). Moreover, PT was decreased both in males (96±45.8 sec) and females (78.6±20.2 sec) after ED consumption.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>ED consumption contributed to the increased BG level and increased coagulation (decreased PT) and hence indicating an increased risk of thrombosis and type 2 diabetes among persistent consumers. Further large-scale studies are required locally in order to provide sufficient evidence.</p> Faizan Mirza Yusra Saleem Qurat-ul- ain Sadaf Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 166 171 Comparative safety and efficacy of low dose ketamine and opioids for acute pain management at the emergency department http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/279 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pain is a complex phenomenon for which many pharmacological agents have been discovered and utilized for pain relief. Ketamine is a more preferred pain reliever over opioids in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of low dose ketamine (LDK) with morphine (opioid) for pain relief among patients presenting to the ED.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A prospective, cohort study was conducted over a sample of 280 patients presented with acute pain to the ED, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi. These patients were then divided into two groups via simple random sampling with randomization being assured using an online randomizer software tool. The 1<sup>st</sup> group (n=140) was given 0.2 mg/kg of LDK while 0.1 mg/kg of intravenous morphine (opioid) was given to the 2<sup>nd</sup> group (n=140). The pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) from admission to 60 mins, the records were taken after every 15 mins. The adverse events (AE’s) were also recorded for both groups. The data was then analyzed using SPSS Version 21 &amp; Microsoft Excel 2016.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 280 patients enrolled in the study, there was male majority i.e. 76.07% while the remaining were females with the mean age of 29±7 years. Within 15 minutes of initial dose administration in both groups, a marked reduction in pain intensity was observed. Reduced respiratory rate, pruritus and decreased O<sub>2 </sub>saturation were common AE’s observed, which were comparatively higher among patients receiving morphine as compared to ketamine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The efficacy of morphine (opium) and LDK is similar in alleviating pain in an emergency setting, however, LDK is visibly safer than its opioid counterpart and thus may be used as a safer alternative.</p> Syed Jehanzeb Asim Mohammed Aqil Wajahat Ali Lal Shehbaz Shua Nasir ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 172 178 Healthy live birth following ICSI with retrograde ejaculated cryopreserved sperm http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/427 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Retrograde ejaculation is a medical condition that occurs when semen enters the urinary bladder (retrograde) during orgasm instead of passing through the penis (antegrade). Complete retrograde semen flow causes male infertility. An advanced technique intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to achieve fertilization in the case of male sub-fertility e.g. Oligo-Astheno-Teratozoospermia.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>A couple with primary infertility visited the concept fertility centre, where male was diagnosed with retrograde ejaculation for which ICSI was offered with back-up semen freezing after an initial semen analysis.</p> <p><strong>Management and Results: </strong>Female was stimulated with long stimulation protocol and thirteen matured eggs were injected by cryopreserved sperms extracted from urine sediment. Fertilization occurred in twelve eggs out of which two good quality embryos were transferred after day five in vitro culturing and rest were vitrified. The patient conceived triplets and gave birth at 33 weeks, but two babies had neonatal death within four days and the patient has one healthy baby girl.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Applying assisted reproductive techniques to aid pregnancy in cases of retrograde ejaculation has paucity of knowledge in Pakistan and this case report is the first in Pakistan to describe the diagnosis and successful treatment of infertile couples, with advanced reproductive technology, where the male partner suffered from retrograde ejaculation.</p> Neelam Barkat Ali Maria Ahmad Safdar Khan Anila Iqbal Sadia Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 179 182 Denture induced stomatitis; A case report http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/277 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Denture hygiene habits are liable to change from one person to another. There has been a close relationship between irregular denture surfaces, poor oral hygiene or ill-fitted denture and opportunistic oral microorganism which leads to diseases like denture induced stomatitis.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>A 70-year-old patient reported to the department with a complaint of broken denture and pain in the mucosa, upon history and examination, it was diagnosed that the patient had denture stomatitis.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results:</strong> The patient was advised to have good oral hygiene and anti-microbial gels. After a week of follow up, the patient showed good results with the treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded that the need to educate patients regarding denture and oral hygiene is the most important step to prevent this type of disease.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ahsan Inayat Syed Zahid Hassan Ayesha Aziz Rida Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 183 187 Isolated intracranial Rosai Dorfman Disease without nodal involvement. http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/91 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rosai Dorfman disease is a benign lymphohistiocytosis that often involves lymph nodes and present as massive painless lymphadenopathy with sinus histiocytosis. Usually systemic involvement and with rare intracranial and extremely rarely intracranial involvement without the involvement of lymphadenopathy.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>We presented a case of 60 years old female with seizures and left side weakness and no lymphadenopathy. The MRI revealed contrasting right frontal homogenously enhancing convexity mass.</p> <p><strong>Management &amp; Results:</strong> The patient was kept on antiepileptic medications but soon presented with fits and slight expansion in frontal mass. Surgery was performed (right frontal craniotomy), the mass was surgically resected and biopsy indicated Rosai Dorfman disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:&nbsp; By now only 7 of such cases are reported and prognosis of the disease is not poor if surgically treated however other measures including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, steroids are not very effective for treating the disease. And due to the rarity of disease suspicion of such disease should always be kept as a key differential in homogenously enhancing lesions with dural involvement with or without lymphadenopathy.&nbsp;</p> Peer Asad Aziz Riaz Ahmed Raja Vashdev Khimani Zeeshan Nasir Pir Abdul Ahad Aziz Noorulain Qureshi Sanaullah Pathan Aitzaz Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 188 191 Oxidative stress mediated neurodegeneration; A cellular perspective http://aeirc-edu.com/ojs14/index.php/IJEHSR/article/view/87 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Environmental toxins, nutritional discrepancies, genetic predispositions, and lifestyle modifications induce a variety of stresses on the human brain and body. Such chronic stressors can influence the onset and progression of neurodegeneration via cellular alterations. In this systematic review, we have discussed the role of oxidative stress in causing neurodegeneration. Moreover, the chemical, metallic and other etiological factors that stimulate oxidative stress and results in the development of neurodegenerative disorders are also explored and summarized.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on the human brain in relation to neurodegeneration. The human studies focusing on neurobiology and cellular changes in brain, investigating the pathway of oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration through mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular alterations, published during 1<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;January 2000 to 31<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;March 2019 were identified and included in this systematic review.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Result:&nbsp;</strong>Following the PRISMA guidelines, 13 out of 1169 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis and screening. These studies focused on the features like cellular factors, metal exposure, and aging, inducing oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration. 6 studies described mitochondrial alterations resulting in oxidative stress due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidation of proteins, peroxidation of lipid and damages to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). While the data from 5 studies suggested the loss of mitochondrial activity in response to metal exposure. 2 experimental studies specified the effect of aging and self-implication of oxidative stress in the brain.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Although there are sufficient evidence that supported the hypothesis that stress is significantly associated with neurodegeneration but it is still not considered as a primary instigator in neurodegenerative disorders. However, it can be concluded on the basis of this review that it has been involved in the propagation of cellular alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction that further leads to neurodegeneration.</p> Shamoon Noushad Ujala Sajid Sadaf Ahmed Yursa Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 7 4 192 217