International Journal of Endorsing Health Science Research (IJEHSR) 2018-07-22T09:14:19+00:00 Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p>IJEHSR is quarterly, open access, peer-reviewed&nbsp;journal keen to endorse the need for finest healthcare globally mainly&nbsp;focusing on origins &amp; hazards of ailment and complete array of significant psycho-social and healthcare problems and barriers. This academic journal endeavors to encourage both basic and clinical health science scholars to publish the manuscripts for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms, healthiness concerns, current challenges, disease treatment, and prevention. IJEHSR invites all these domains endorsing concerns of individual or populations as impacted by age, race, ethnicity, religion, nationality and geographical region, mental and physical health impacts, educational capability in healthcare surroundings, general health, screening plans and disease impediment, practices and guidelines, public health policies etc.</p> Realizing the need of inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in expanded program on immunization in Sindh, Pakistan 2018-07-22T09:14:19+00:00 Osama Shabbir Laila-Tul -Qadar Fauzia Imtiaz <p>The basic goal of the expanded program on immunization (EPI) is to assure the proper immunization services that aids in preserving and promoting the health of children. The foundation of EPI in Pakistan was prompted and initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 19781. The current EPI of Pakistan has vaccines for Tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus Influenza-b (Hib) Pneumonia, Meningitis, and Measles. However, it doesn't include the most important Rotavirus vaccine which is internationally included in EPI of other 90 countries. Despite the advent of Rotavirus vaccine a decade ago, it is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea. Globally it results in more than half a million deaths among children of less than 5 years of age per annum. In 2006 first rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Finland (US) in 2 forms, Rotarix and Rotteq. Both had the maximum potential effect if given before 8 months of age. In the United States, studies depicted that after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006 mortality has reduced by more than two thirds. According to WHO, diarrhea has the 3rd highest rates of mortality in children amongst all infectious diseases.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Frequency of pelvic asymmetry among medical students of Karachi 2018-07-22T09:10:35+00:00 Amna Yaseen Sana Subhan Taiba Hameed Saeed Akther <p><strong>Background:</strong> Assessment of the pelvis is a complex integration with spine and lower extremities and is prone to multiple dysfunctions. Physiotherapists in routine rarely assess pelvis associated musculoskeletal abnormalities. This study was aimed at finding the frequency of pelvic-asymmetry in medical students of Karachi.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from 28th November 2017 to 6th February 2018 to measure asymmetry of the pelvis manually. A sample of 154 medical students was calculated through Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health (Open Epi) version 3.0 with a confidence level of 95%. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used. An informed consent was taken and data was collected from participants aged between 18-25 years through a self-generated questionnaire. Participants with Congenital abnormalities or fracture of lower limb or complain of nerve root pain, any spinal pathology/tumor/surgery of lower limb were excluded from the study sample. Data was analyzed using Statistical Project of Social Science (SPSS) version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the results 43.5% of the study subjects were observed having pelvic asymmetry. Furthermore, 41.0% participants were spending &lt;3 hours in a constant standing position were observed with the asymmetrical pelvis, while 40.5% participants with pelvic asymmetry work for &gt;3 hours standing constantly. Only 41.5% of participants with low back pain were observed having an asymmetrical pelvis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded from the study results that there is a high prevalence of pelvic asymmetry observed among medical students of Karachi. Moreover, knee and ankle joint pain due to constant standing is highly associated with asymmetrical pelvis as compared to hip pain.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maternal nutritional knowledge and its association with iron deficiency anemia in children 2018-07-22T09:09:56+00:00 Ameera Ismail Fahima Fatima <p><strong>Background:</strong> Young children are more prone to the development of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). The most important factor of IDA in children is maternal nutritional knowledge because mothers are the sole source for providing diets to their children. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the maternal knowledge of child nutrition, hemoglobin (Hb) status of children and effect of maternal knowledge of anemia on its prevalence in children.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in young children. In total, 143 pairs of children (2 – 10 years) along with their mothers were randomly selected. Data was collected by conducting interviews from mothers, using a structured questionnaire for their knowledge on child nutrition. Portable hemoglobinometer was used for identifying the Hb status of children. Data was analyzed using Statistical Project of Social Science (SPSS) version 22.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> It was evaluated that 4 out of 5 children were anemic. Out of total participant in the study, 7.69% of mothers were found to have a poor nutritional knowledge and all of their children were anemic. Approximately 63.64% mothers had average knowledge and 86.8% of their children were anemic while the rest were okay. Moreover, 28.67% of mothers with high nutritional knowledge had 58.5% anemic children and the rest was fine. The relationship between maternal nutrition knowledge and Hb level of children was highly significant (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Maternal knowledge about nutrition is associated with the prevalence of anemia in their children and it is one of the major modifiable factors.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of total antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetic and normal healthy subjects 2018-07-22T09:09:13+00:00 Humaira Jabeen Mehwish Zeeshan Muhammad Imran Sumreen Begum Tajallee Saleem Nazia Ahmed Rashida Qasim <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease in the world. Current investigations evolved that oxidative stress is also a major risk factor to cause type 2 diabetes mellitus due to impairment of antioxidant defense system in various biological fluids.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and 30 normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from various health care centers of Karachi, Pakistan for a study period of six months June 2017 – December 2017. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concentration was measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Caymans Antioxidant Assay. The biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements were estimated by standardized methods. Data was analyzed using the statistical program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the study results TAC was significantly reduced (**0.05 ± 0.00 mmol /L) in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects compared to normal healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.02 mmol /L). It was noted that diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and triglycerides (TG’s) were significantly increased while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly reduced in diabetic subjects than the comparative healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that decreased levels of TAC and HDL-C in type 2 DM patients with increased levels of BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), DBP, and total cholesterol (TC) which may cause oxidative stress and increase the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other metabolic diseases. Modifications in dietary habits and intake of antioxidant foods or supplements may diminish the process of oxidative stress which may consequently decrease CVD and other severe clinical outcomes.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenges and acceptance of the use of computer-assisted personal interviews technology for verbal autopsy/social autopsy child mortality survey in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. 2018-07-22T09:08:53+00:00 Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui Chiu Wan Ng Wah Yun Low Shamoon Noushad Sadaf Ahmed Shershah Syed <p><strong>Background:</strong> For collecting data regarding child mortality, the verbal autopsy/social autopsy (VASA) surveys involves lengthy questionnaires. Use of computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) technique is now preferred over paper-and-pencil interviews (PAPI) due to several factors. This study identifies the level of acceptance of CAPI over PAPI among participants; challenges in implementing this technology; and the persuading factors for improving the acceptance of and getting quality data from CAPI based VASA surveys.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This qualitative study involved a total of 20 face-to-face VASA interviews conducted from mothers of deceased under-five children in selected urban slums of Karachi, followed by semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs), enquiring about their acceptance towards CAPI and discussing the challenges faced during the use of PAPI versus CAPI. Total of 8 IDIs were conducted from different stakeholders for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis on the CAPI implementation. Thematic analysis was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 20 female respondents (median age 28.2 years and median education 5th grade); and 10 female interviewers (median age 30.1 years and median education of 11th grade), 78.1% and 83.7% respectively were mobile phone skilled in priori. The overall outcome showed a positive acceptance (90%) of CAPI by participants. Respondents and interviewers accepted CAPI over PAPI, while the technique had some challenges as identified by different stakeholders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Researchers pondering the use of CAPI for VASA surveys on child mortality must consider discussed factors in order to increase the participants’ acceptance level, maximizing the involvement of CAPI in child health surveys and to obtain a quality data, especially from developing countries.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Anti-thymocyte Globulin use makes kidney transplantation journey smooth 2018-07-22T09:06:53+00:00 Akbar Mahmood Tanveer Ahmed Kunwar Muhammad Aqeel Muhammad Imran Nosheen Anwer <p><strong>Background:</strong> The most common immunosuppressant, Anti-thymocyte Globulin (ATGs) has been widely used by clinicians for the treatment and prevention of rejection at the time of organ transplant. Transplantation is the best option for the people with renal failure at end stage, requiring replacement of renal therapy. This is a promising treatment option with significant benefits in terms of mortality and morbidity. ATG prevents organ rejection by inhibition of activated T-cells and other immune and non-immune cells. The aim of the study was to compare different induction regimens with ATG for the survival of smooth kidney transplantation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Studies of the last 20 years, focusing on kidney transplantation and the efficacy of anti-thymocyte use for kidney transplantation were reviewed for the study literature. The keywords used were Kidney Transplantation, Induction agents, ATG, Allograft, Immunosuppressant Agents.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Literature suggested that the most important problem with transplantation is the protection of the allograft from activated immunological forces, which begin to react early in the period after transplantation and cause significant damage with serious short-term and long-term consequences. This process is called rejection, which is usually classified as cell-mediated and antibody-mediated rejection. The phenomenon mediated by cells causes concern, as it is the cause of future failures and damage to the allograft. To combat these phenomena with different results, various strategies were adopted. Among these therapies, ATG has recognized the exceptional importance of preventing cellular mediated rejection, allowing allotransplants to function smoothly with the greatest possible long-term benefits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded on the basis of previous studies that ATG as an induction agent, is more efficient in reducing the rejection rate in the renal transplantation as compared with other agents.</p> 2018-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##